Optics

opticalopticoptical systemoptical deviceclassical opticsoptical propertiesoptical systemsoptical physicistopticianoptical components
Optics is the branch of physics that studies the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.wikipedia
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Ray (optics)

raysrayincident light
The most common of these, geometric optics, treats light as a collection of rays that travel in straight lines and bend when they pass through or reflect from surfaces.
In optics a ray is an idealized model of light, obtained by choosing a line that is perpendicular to the wavefronts of the actual light, and that points in the direction of energy flow.

Physical optics

wave opticsoptical effectsphysical
Physical optics is a more comprehensive model of light, which includes wave effects such as diffraction and interference that cannot be accounted for in geometric optics.
In physics, physical optics, or wave optics, is the branch of optics that studies interference, diffraction, polarization, and other phenomena for which the ray approximation of geometric optics is not valid.

Geometrical optics

geometric opticsray opticsgeometric
The most common of these, geometric optics, treats light as a collection of rays that travel in straight lines and bend when they pass through or reflect from surfaces.
Geometrical optics, or ray optics, is a model of optics that describes light propagation in terms of rays.

Light

visible lightvisiblelight source
Optics is the branch of physics that studies the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
The study of light, known as optics, is an important research area in modern physics.

Ibn al-Haytham

AlhazenAlhacenAl-Haytham
In the early 11th century, Alhazen (Ibn al-Haytham) wrote the Book of Optics (Kitab al-manazir) in which he explored reflection and refraction and proposed a new system for explaining vision and light based on observation and experiment.
Also sometimes referred to as "the father of modern optics", he made significant contributions to the principles of optics and visual perception in particular, his most influential work being his Kitāb al-Manāẓir (كتاب المناظر, "Book of Optics"), written during 1011–1021, which survived in the Latin edition.

Microwave

microwavesmicrowave radiationmicrowave tube
Because light is an electromagnetic wave, other forms of electromagnetic radiation such as X-rays, microwaves, and radio waves exhibit similar properties.
In turn, at even higher frequencies, where the wavelength of the electromagnetic waves becomes small in comparison to the size of the structures used to process them, microwave techniques become inadequate, and the methods of optics are used.

Prism

prismsprismaticPrism (optics)
In the late 1660s and early 1670s, Isaac Newton expanded Descartes' ideas into a corpuscle theory of light, famously determining that white light was a mix of colours which can be separated into its component parts with a prism.
In optics, a prism is a transparent optical element with flat, polished surfaces that refract light.

Corpuscular theory of light

corpuscular theorycorpuscle theory of lightcorpuscular
In the late 1660s and early 1670s, Isaac Newton expanded Descartes' ideas into a corpuscle theory of light, famously determining that white light was a mix of colours which can be separated into its component parts with a prism.
In optics, the corpuscular theory of light, arguably set forward by Descartes in 1637, states that light is made up of small discrete particles called "corpuscles" (little particles) which travel in a straight line with a finite velocity and possess impetus.

Book of Optics

Kitab al-ManazirAlhazenCamera obscura experiments
In the early 11th century, Alhazen (Ibn al-Haytham) wrote the Book of Optics (Kitab al-manazir) in which he explored reflection and refraction and proposed a new system for explaining vision and light based on observation and experiment.
The Book of Optics (كتاب المناظر; Latin: De Aspectibus or Perspectiva; Italian: Deli Aspecti) is a seven-volume treatise on optics and other fields of study composed by the medieval Arab scholar Ibn al-Haytham, known in the West as Alhazen or Alhacen (965–c.

Christiaan Huygens

HuygensChristian HuygensChristiaan Huyghens
In 1690, Christiaan Huygens proposed a wave theory for light based on suggestions that had been made by Robert Hooke in 1664.
In physics, Huygens made groundbreaking contributions in optics and mechanics, while as an astronomer he is chiefly known for his studies of the rings of Saturn and the discovery of its moon Titan.

Isaac Newton

NewtonSir Isaac NewtonNewtonian
In the late 1660s and early 1670s, Isaac Newton expanded Descartes' ideas into a corpuscle theory of light, famously determining that white light was a mix of colours which can be separated into its component parts with a prism.
Newton also made seminal contributions to optics, and shares credit with Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz for developing the infinitesimal calculus.

Augustin-Jean Fresnel

FresnelAugustin FresnelAugustin Jean Fresnel
Newtonian optics was generally accepted until the early 19th century when Thomas Young and Augustin-Jean Fresnel conducted experiments on the interference of light that firmly established light's wave nature.
Augustin-Jean Fresnel ( or ; ; 10 May 1788 – 14 July 1827) was a French civil engineer and physicist whose research in optics led to the almost unanimous acceptance of the wave theory of light, excluding any remnant of Newton's corpuscular theory, from the late 1830s until the end of the 19th century.

Johannes Kepler

KeplerDioptriceJohan Kepler
In the early 17th century, Johannes Kepler expanded on geometric optics in his writings, covering lenses, reflection by flat and curved mirrors, the principles of pinhole cameras, inverse-square law governing the intensity of light, and the optical explanations of astronomical phenomena such as lunar and solar eclipses and astronomical parallax.
Additionally, he did fundamental work in the field of optics, invented an improved version of the refracting (or Keplerian) telescope, and was mentioned in the telescopic discoveries of his contemporary Galileo Galilei.

Physics

physicistphysicalphysicists
Optics is the branch of physics that studies the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
Classical physics includes the traditional branches and topics that were recognised and well-developed before the beginning of the 20th century—classical mechanics, acoustics, optics, thermodynamics, and electromagnetism.

Al-Kindi

AlkindusAl-KindīAl Kindi
One of the earliest of these was Al-Kindi (c.
He subsequently wrote hundreds of original treatises of his own on a range of subjects ranging from metaphysics, ethics, logic and psychology, to medicine, pharmacology, mathematics, astronomy, astrology and optics, and further afield to more practical topics like perfumes, swords, jewels, glass, dyes, zoology, tides, mirrors, meteorology and earthquakes.

Refractive index

index of refractionrefractive indicesrefraction index
is the refractive index of the second material.
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how fast light travels through the material.

Lambert's cosine law

Lambert's lawLambertianLambertian emitter
Many diffuse reflectors are described or can be approximated by Lambert's cosine law, which describes surfaces that have equal luminance when viewed from any angle.
In optics, Lambert's cosine law says that the radiant intensity or luminous intensity observed from an ideal diffusely reflecting surface or ideal diffuse radiator is directly proportional to the cosine of the angle θ between the direction of the incident light and the surface normal.

Leonard Mandel

L. MandelMandelMandel, L.
Following the work of Paul Dirac in quantum field theory, George Sudarshan, Roy J. Glauber, and Leonard Mandel applied quantum theory to the electromagnetic field in the 1950s and 1960s to gain a more detailed understanding of photodetection and the statistics of light.
Leonard Mandel (May 9, 1927 – February 9, 2001) was the Lee DuBridge Professor Emeritus of Physics and Optics at the University of Rochester when he died at the age of 73 at his home in Pittsford, New York.

Mirror image

reflectionmirror imagesmirror-image
The law also implies that mirror images are parity inverted, which we perceive as a left-right inversion.
As an optical effect it results from reflection off of substances such as a mirror or water.

Gradient-index optics

Gradient index opticsgradient-indexgradient-index lens
Such materials are used to make gradient-index optics.
Gradient-index (GRIN) optics is the branch of optics covering optical effects produced by a gradient of the refractive index of a material.

Real image

realimageimages
This allows for production of reflected images that can be associated with an actual (real) or extrapolated (virtual) location in space.
In optics, an image is defined as the collection of focus points of light rays coming from an object.

Aristotle

AristotelianAristotelesAristote
With many propagators including Democritus, Epicurus, Aristotle and their followers, this theory seems to have some contact with modern theories of what vision really is, but it remained only speculation lacking any experimental foundation.
Aristotle describes experiments in optics using a camera obscura in Problems, book 15.

Focal length

effective focal lengthfocal distancelimiting the focal range of the lens
Lenses are characterized by their focal length: a converging lens has positive focal length, while a diverging lens has negative focal length.
The focal length of an optical system is a measure of how strongly the system converges or diverges light; it is the inverse of the system's optical power.

Optical aberration

aberrationsaberrationoptical aberrations
Lenses suffer from aberrations that distort images.
In optics, aberration is a property of optical systems such as lenses that causes light to be spread out over some region of space rather than focused to a point.

Virtual image

virtualvirtual objectvirtual objects
This allows for production of reflected images that can be associated with an actual (real) or extrapolated (virtual) location in space.
In optics, an image is defined as the collection of focus points of light rays coming from an object.