A report on Optics and Physical optics

Physical optics is used to explain effects such as diffraction
The Nimrud lens
Alhazen (Ibn al-Haytham), "the father of Optics"
Reproduction of a page of Ibn Sahl's manuscript showing his knowledge of the law of refraction.
The first treatise about optics by Johannes Kepler, Ad Vitellionem paralipomena quibus astronomiae pars optica traditur (1604)
Cover of the first edition of Newton's Opticks (1704)
Geometry of reflection and refraction of light rays
Diagram of specular reflection
Illustration of Snell's Law for the case n1 < n2, such as air/water interface
A ray tracing diagram for a converging lens.
Images of black letters in a thin convex lens of focal length f are shown in red. Selected rays are shown for letters E, I and K in blue, green and orange, respectively. Note that E (at 2f) has an equal-size, real and inverted image; I (at f) has its image at infinity; and K (at f/2) has a double-size, virtual and upright image.
When oil or fuel is spilled, colourful patterns are formed by thin-film interference.
Conceptual animation of light dispersion through a prism. High frequency (blue) light is deflected the most, and low frequency (red) the least.
Dispersion: two sinusoids propagating at different speeds make a moving interference pattern. The red dot moves with the phase velocity, and the green dots propagate with the group velocity. In this case, the phase velocity is twice the group velocity. The red dot overtakes two green dots, when moving from the left to the right of the figure. In effect, the individual waves (which travel with the phase velocity) escape from the wave packet (which travels with the group velocity).
Linear polarization diagram
Circular polarization diagram
Elliptical polarization diagram
A polariser changing the orientation of linearly polarised light. In this picture, θ1 – θ0 = θi.
The effects of a polarising filter on the sky in a photograph. Left picture is taken without polariser. For the right picture, filter was adjusted to eliminate certain polarizations of the scattered blue light from the sky.
Experiments such as this one with high-power lasers are part of the modern optics research.
VLT's laser guide star
Model of a human eye. Features mentioned in this article are 1. vitreous humour 3. ciliary muscle, 6. pupil, 7. anterior chamber, 8. cornea, 10. lens cortex, 22. optic nerve, 26. fovea, 30. retina
The Ponzo Illusion relies on the fact that parallel lines appear to converge as they approach infinity.
Illustrations of various optical instruments from the 1728 Cyclopaedia
Photograph taken with aperture 32
Photograph taken with aperture 5
A colourful sky is often due to scattering of light off particulates and pollution, as in this photograph of a sunset during the October 2007 California wildfires.

In physics, physical optics, or wave optics, is the branch of optics that studies interference, diffraction, polarization, and other phenomena for which the ray approximation of geometric optics is not valid.

- Physical optics

Physical optics is a more comprehensive model of light, which includes wave effects such as diffraction and interference that cannot be accounted for in geometric optics.

- Optics

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Diagram of rays at a surface, where is the angle of refraction.

Ray (optics)

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Diagram of rays at a surface, where is the angle of refraction.
Simple ray diagram showing typical chief and marginal rays
Rays and wavefronts

In optics a ray is an idealized geometrical model of light, obtained by choosing a curve that is perpendicular to the wavefronts of the actual light, and that points in the direction of energy flow.

Ray optics or geometrical optics does not describe phenomena such as diffraction, which require wave optics theory.