Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women

Optional ProtocolOptional Protocol to CEDAWCEDAWits Optional Protocol
[[File:OP-CEDAW-members.svg|thumb|right|400px|States parties and signatories to the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Womenwikipedia
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Female homicides in Ciudad Juárez

deaths in Ciudad Juárezfemale homicidesFemale homicides in Ciudad Juarez
The Protocol has led to a number of decisions against member states on issues such as domestic violence, parental leave and forced sterilization, as well as an investigation into the systematic killing of women in the Mexican city of Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua.
In 2004, under the [[Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women]] (CEDAW) conducted an inquiry into the allegations that hundreds of murders of women and girls had taken place in the area of Ciudad Juarez since 1993 at the urging of several NGOs.

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women

CEDAWCommittee on the Elimination of Discrimination against WomenConvention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)
]]The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (OP-CEDAW) is an international treaty which establishes complaint and inquiry mechanisms for the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW).
The [[Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women]] is a side-agreement to the Convention which allows its parties to recognise the competence of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women to consider complaints from individuals.

International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial DiscriminationCommittee on the Elimination of Racial DiscriminationCERD
Articles 1–7 create an individual complaints mechanism similar to those of the [[First Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights]], Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and Article 14 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination.
Article 14 of the Convention establishes an individual complaints mechanism similar to that of the [[First Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights]], Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and [[Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women]].

Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

Optional Protocol
Articles 1–7 create an individual complaints mechanism similar to those of the [[First Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights]], Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and Article 14 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination.

First Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

First Optional Protocolfirst
Articles 1–7 create an individual complaints mechanism similar to those of the [[First Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights]], Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and Article 14 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination.

Treaty

treatiesinternational treatyinternational treaties
]]The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (OP-CEDAW) is an international treaty which establishes complaint and inquiry mechanisms for the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW).

Domestic violence

domestic abusespousal abuseabusive
The Protocol has led to a number of decisions against member states on issues such as domestic violence, parental leave and forced sterilization, as well as an investigation into the systematic killing of women in the Mexican city of Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua. The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women has considered eleven complaints against seven countries since the Optional Protocol came into force, on subjects such as domestic violence, division of property, forced sterilization and parental leave.

Parental leave

maternity leavepaternity leavepaid family leave
The Protocol has led to a number of decisions against member states on issues such as domestic violence, parental leave and forced sterilization, as well as an investigation into the systematic killing of women in the Mexican city of Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua. The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women has considered eleven complaints against seven countries since the Optional Protocol came into force, on subjects such as domestic violence, division of property, forced sterilization and parental leave.

Compulsory sterilization

forced sterilizationsterilizationcompulsory sterilisation
The Protocol has led to a number of decisions against member states on issues such as domestic violence, parental leave and forced sterilization, as well as an investigation into the systematic killing of women in the Mexican city of Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua. The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women has considered eleven complaints against seven countries since the Optional Protocol came into force, on subjects such as domestic violence, division of property, forced sterilization and parental leave.

Ciudad Juárez

Ciudad JuarezCiudad Juárez, ChihuahuaJuárez
The Protocol has led to a number of decisions against member states on issues such as domestic violence, parental leave and forced sterilization, as well as an investigation into the systematic killing of women in the Mexican city of Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua.

United Nations General Assembly

General AssemblyUN General AssemblyGeneral Assembly of the United Nations
The Protocol was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 6 October 1999, and in force from 22 December 2000.

Signature

signatorysignature holesignatures
As of September 2017, the Protocol has 80 signatories and 109 parties.

Ratification

ratifiedratifyratifying
As of September 2017, the Protocol has 80 signatories and 109 parties.

Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action

Vienna Declaration
Fifteen years later, the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action of the 1993 World Conference on Human Rights suggested that new procedures were needed to implement the Convention, and suggested a "right of petition".

World Conference on Human Rights

Vienna Conference (1993)1993 in Vienna1993 World Conference on Human Rights
Fifteen years later, the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action of the 1993 World Conference on Human Rights suggested that new procedures were needed to implement the Convention, and suggested a "right of petition".

Right to petition

petitionright of petitionright to petition the government
Fifteen years later, the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action of the 1993 World Conference on Human Rights suggested that new procedures were needed to implement the Convention, and suggested a "right of petition".

World Conference on Women, 1995

Fourth World Conference on WomenBeijing Platform for ActionWorld Conference on Women
The idea of an Optional Protocol was further endorsed by the Fourth World Conference on Women in 1995, which called for "the elaboration (of) a draft optional protocol to the Women's Convention that could enter into force as soon as possible."

United Nations Commission on the Status of Women

Commission on the Status of WomenUN Commission on the Status of WomenU.N. Commission on the Status of Women
In March 1996 the Commission on the Status of Women established an open-ended working group to produce a formal draft.

Coming into force

came into forceenactmentsentered into force
Articles 15–21 govern ratification, entry into force, and amendment of the Optional Protocol.

Reservation (law)

reservationsreservationinterpretative declaration
A number of parties have made reservations and interpretative declarations to their application of the Protocol.

Bangladesh

People's Republic of BangladeshBangladeshiBangla Desh
Bangladesh, Belize and Colombia have exercised their right under Article 10 of the Protocol not to recognise the jurisdiction of the Committee to investigate "grave or systematic violations" of the Convention.

Belize

British HondurasBelizeanBelizian
Bangladesh, Belize and Colombia have exercised their right under Article 10 of the Protocol not to recognise the jurisdiction of the Committee to investigate "grave or systematic violations" of the Convention.

Colombia

COLRepublic of ColombiaColombian
Bangladesh, Belize and Colombia have exercised their right under Article 10 of the Protocol not to recognise the jurisdiction of the Committee to investigate "grave or systematic violations" of the Convention.

Division of property

equitable distributionproperty settlementdistribution of property
The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women has considered eleven complaints against seven countries since the Optional Protocol came into force, on subjects such as domestic violence, division of property, forced sterilization and parental leave.