Oral Torah

Oral LawOraloral traditionJewish oral traditionoral interpretationHalacha LeMoshe MiSinaiHalakha LeMoshe MiSinaiJewish oral lawmasorahMassorah
According to Rabbinic Judaism, the Oral Torah or Oral Law (, lit. "Torah that is on the mouth") represents those laws, statutes, and legal interpretations that were not recorded in the Five Books of Moses, the "Written Torah" (, lit. "Torah that is in writing"), but nonetheless are regarded by Orthodox Jews as prescriptive and co-given.wikipedia
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Mishnah

MishnaicMishnamishnayot
The major repositories of the Oral Torah are the Mishnah, compiled between 200–220 CE by Rabbi Yehudah haNasi, and the Gemara, a series of running commentaries and debates concerning the Mishnah, which together form the Talmud, the preeminent text of Rabbinic Judaism. The product of this effort, the Mishnah, is generally considered the first work of rabbinic literature.
The Mishnah or Mishna (, "study by repetition", from the verb shanah, or "to study and review", also "secondary") is the first major written collection of the Jewish oral traditions known as the "Oral Torah".

Orthodox Judaism

OrthodoxOrthodox JewishOrthodox Jews
Belief that at least portions of the Oral Torah were transmitted orally from God to Moses on Mount Sinai during the Exodus from Egypt is a fundamental tenet of faith of Orthodox Judaism, and was recognized as one of the Thirteen Principles of Faith by Maimonides.
Theologically, it is chiefly defined by regarding the Torah, both Written and Oral, as literally revealed by God on Mount Sinai and faithfully transmitted ever since.

Karaite Judaism

KaraiteKaraitesKaraite Jews
There have also been historical dissenters to the Oral Torah in its entirety, including adherents to Karaite Judaism, who attempt to derive their religious practice strictly from the Written Torah, using Scripture's most natural meaning to form their basis of Jewish law.
It is distinct from mainstream Rabbinic Judaism, which considers the Oral Torah, as codified in the Talmud and subsequent works, to be authoritative interpretations of the Torah.

Jewish principles of faith

13 Principles of FaithThirteen Principles of Faithyetzer hatov
Belief that at least portions of the Oral Torah were transmitted orally from God to Moses on Mount Sinai during the Exodus from Egypt is a fundamental tenet of faith of Orthodox Judaism, and was recognized as one of the Thirteen Principles of Faith by Maimonides.
Traditional Judaism maintains that God established a covenant with the Jewish people at Mount Sinai, and revealed his laws and 613 commandments to them in the form of the Written and Oral Torah.

Tosefta

Tosef.Tosefta Hullintoseftas
The Jewish Encyclopedia divides the Oral Torah into eight categories, ranked according to the relative level of authoritativeness, which are found within the Talmud, the Tosefta and the halakhic Midrashim.
The Tosefta (Jewish Babylonian Aramaic תוספתא "supplement, addition") is a compilation of the Jewish oral law from the late 2nd century, the period of the Mishnah.

Rabbinic Judaism

rabbinicalrabbinicrabbinical Judaism
According to Rabbinic Judaism, the Oral Torah or Oral Law (, lit. "Torah that is on the mouth") represents those laws, statutes, and legal interpretations that were not recorded in the Five Books of Moses, the "Written Torah" (, lit. "Torah that is in writing"), but nonetheless are regarded by Orthodox Jews as prescriptive and co-given.
Growing out of Pharisaic Judaism, Rabbinic Judaism is based on the belief that at Mount Sinai, Moses received from God the Written Torah (Pentateuch) in addition to an oral explanation, known as the "Oral Torah," that Moses transmitted to the people.

Maimonides

RambamMoses MaimonidesMaimonidean
Belief that at least portions of the Oral Torah were transmitted orally from God to Moses on Mount Sinai during the Exodus from Egypt is a fundamental tenet of faith of Orthodox Judaism, and was recognized as one of the Thirteen Principles of Faith by Maimonides.
He is sometimes known as "ha Nesher ha Gadol" (the great eagle) in recognition of his outstanding status as a bona fide exponent of the Oral Torah.

Midrash

midrashimmidrashicMidrash Rabbah
The Jewish Encyclopedia divides the Oral Torah into eight categories, ranked according to the relative level of authoritativeness, which are found within the Talmud, the Tosefta and the halakhic Midrashim.
Such works contain early interpretations and commentaries on the Written Torah and Oral Torah (spoken law and sermons), as well as non-legalistic rabbinic literature (haggadah) and occasionally Jewish religious laws (halakha), which usually form a running commentary on specific passages in the Hebrew Scripture (Tanakh).

Talmudical hermeneutics

a fortioria fortiori'' (''kal va-chomer'') argumenta fortiori'' (''kal va-chomer'') arguments
5) Interpretations and regulations covering the written law, as well as new halakhot, which the Tannaim deduced from Scripture by means of hermeneutic rules or by logical conclusions. There are differences of opinion among the scholars in regard to most of these explanations and definitions; but they are of equal weight with the written law, and are called also "Debar Torah" (Regulation of the Torah).
This includes, among others, the rules by which the requirements of the Oral Law and the Halakha are derived from and established by the written law.

Hebrew Bible

biblicalBibleHebrew
3) Laws found in the prophetic books. Some of these originated at the time of the Prophets; but others are much older, perhaps having been transmitted orally, and committed to writing by the Prophets. They are called also "Dibre Ḳabbalah" (Words of Tradition).
The books of the Tanakh were passed on by each generation and, according to rabbinic tradition, were accompanied by an oral tradition, called the Oral Torah.

Pharisees

PhariseePharisaicpharisaism
Many of these practices were advocated by the Pharisees, a sect of largely lower- and middle-class Jews who stood in opposition to the Sadducees, the priestly caste who dominated the Temple cult.
A fourth point of conflict, specifically religious, involved different interpretations of the Torah and how to apply it to current Jewish life, with Sadducees recognizing only the Written Torah (with Greek philosophy) and rejecting doctrines such as the Oral Torah, the Prophets, the Writings, and the resurrection of the dead.

Rabbinic literature

rabbinical literatureclassical rabbinical literaturerabbinic
The product of this effort, the Mishnah, is generally considered the first work of rabbinic literature.
The Mishnah and the Tosefta (compiled from materials pre-dating the year 200 CE) are the earliest extant works of rabbinic literature, expounding and developing Judaism's Oral Law, as well as ethical teachings.

Talmud

Babylonian TalmudtalmudistTalmudic
The major repositories of the Oral Torah are the Mishnah, compiled between 200–220 CE by Rabbi Yehudah haNasi, and the Gemara, a series of running commentaries and debates concerning the Mishnah, which together form the Talmud, the preeminent text of Rabbinic Judaism.
undefined year 200 CE), a written compendium of Rabbinic Judaism's Oral Torah; and the Gemara (circa year 500 CE), an elucidation of the Mishnah and related Tannaitic writings that often ventures onto other subjects and expounds broadly on the Hebrew Bible.

Law given to Moses at Sinai

giving of the law on SinaiHalakha given to Moses on Sinaito Moses on Sinai
2) Ancient halakhot which have no connection with Scripture and can not be connected with it, thus deriving their authority only from the tradition which ascribes them to Moses on Sinai. (In the case of these two groups, it is impossible to ascertain which elucidations and rules were really given to Moses on Sinai, and which were added later.)
According to Rabbinic Judaism, God transmitted the Torah to Moses in two parts: the written Torah which comprises the Biblical books of Genesis through Deuteronomy, and the Oral Torah which was relayed orally, from Moses to his successors, to their successors, and finally to the rabbis.

Tefillin

phylacteriestefilinphylactery
For example, excavations at Qumran have yielded specimens of tefillin and parchment scrolls.
It is within the Talmud, the authoritative oral tradition of Rabbinic Judaism, where tefillin are named and explained as to what it is that are to be bound to the body and the form that they should take.

Shechita

shochetkosher slaughterritual slaughterer
For example, the discussion of shechita (kosher slaughter) in Deuteronomy 12 states "you shall kill of your herd and of your flock which God Lord has given you, as I have commanded you," without any clear indication of what had been "commanded"; only in the Oral Torah are the various requirements of ritual slaughter explicated.
Instead, they have been handed down in Judaism's traditional Oral Torah, and codified in halakha.

Bava Batra

B. B.Baba BathraBava Basra
Rather, important topics covered by the Mishnah "rest on no scriptural foundations whatsoever," such as portions of the civil law tractates of Bava Kamma, Bava Metzia and Bava Batra.
It is part of Judaism's oral law.

Halakha

Jewish lawhalakhichalachic
2) Ancient halakhot which have no connection with Scripture and can not be connected with it, thus deriving their authority only from the tradition which ascribes them to Moses on Sinai. (In the case of these two groups, it is impossible to ascertain which elucidations and rules were really given to Moses on Sinai, and which were added later.) similarly, the Talmud, although applying a different framework, discusses and analyses the written Torah—both from an aggadic and halakhic perspective—drawing from (and recording) the oral tradition; here the discussion is organized around the Mishnah, and the discussion does not proceed verse-wise as with the Midrash.
Halakha (, Sephardic: ; also transliterated as halacha, halakhah, halachah, or halocho) (Ashkenazic: ) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the written and Oral Torah.

Sadducees

SadduceeZadokitepriestly families
Many of these practices were advocated by the Pharisees, a sect of largely lower- and middle-class Jews who stood in opposition to the Sadducees, the priestly caste who dominated the Temple cult.
The Sadducees rejected the Oral Torah as proposed by the Pharisees.

Tzitzit

fringestzitzistassels or fringes
Also, the blue string of tekhelet on the tzitzit is to be dyed with a dye extracted from what some scholars believe to be a snail is a detail only spoken of in the oral Torah.
ptil tchelet). The lack of detail on these points suggests that the mitzvah of tzitzit was to a great extent Oral Torah.

Torah

LawPentateuchMosaic Law
According to Rabbinic Judaism, the Oral Torah or Oral Law (, lit. "Torah that is on the mouth") represents those laws, statutes, and legal interpretations that were not recorded in the Five Books of Moses, the "Written Torah" (, lit. "Torah that is in writing"), but nonetheless are regarded by Orthodox Jews as prescriptive and co-given.
In rabbinic literature the word Torah denotes both the five books (תורה שבכתב "Torah that is written") and the Oral Torah (תורה שבעל פה, "Torah that is spoken").

Reform Judaism

ReformReform JewishReform movement
Reform Judaism generally considers the Oral Law to reflect interpretations or perspectives on the Torah authored by groups of Rabbis in Babylonia and Palestine over a period of time, which are not inherently more legitimate or authoritative than the opinions of Jewish scholars, philosophers, or religious leaders at any other time, including the present.
No less importantly, it provided the clergy with a rationale for adapting, changing and excising traditional mores and bypassing the accepted conventions of Jewish Law, rooted in the orthodox concept of the explicit transmission of both scripture and its oral interpretation.

Conservative Judaism

ConservativeConservative JewishConservative movement
Conservative Judaism (also known as "Masorti" outside North America) takes an intermediate perspective, claiming that the Oral tradition is entitled to authority, but regarding its rulings as flexible guidelines rather than immutable precepts, that may be viewed through the lens of modernity.
Zecharias Frankel himself applied critical-scientific methods to analyze the stages in the development of the Oral Torah, pioneering modern study of the Mishnah.

Torah Temimah

Torah Temimah ("The Perfect Torah") on Torah, by Baruch Epstein.
Published in 1902, it is a commentary on the Torah and the Five Megillot, the object of which was "to show the interrelationship between the Oral and Written Law."

Aggadah

haggadicaggadicaggadot
similarly, the Talmud, although applying a different framework, discusses and analyses the written Torah—both from an aggadic and halakhic perspective—drawing from (and recording) the oral tradition; here the discussion is organized around the Mishnah, and the discussion does not proceed verse-wise as with the Midrash.
The Aggadah is part of Judaism's Oral law —the traditions providing the authoritative interpretation of the Written Law.