Orange Free State

Free StateOrange Free State RepublicRepublic of the Orange Free StateFreestateGoedemoedOrangeOrange Free State of South AfricaOrange Free State ProvinceOrange Free State VolksraadOrange River Boers
The Orange Free State (Oranje-Vrijstaat, Oranje-Vrystaat, abbreviated as OVS ) was an independent Boer sovereign republic in southern Africa during the second half of the 19th century, which later became a British colony and a province of the Union of South Africa.wikipedia
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Orange River Colony

Orange Rivera British colonycolony
The Orange Free State (Oranje-Vrijstaat, Oranje-Vrystaat, abbreviated as OVS ) was an independent Boer sovereign republic in southern Africa during the second half of the 19th century, which later became a British colony and a province of the Union of South Africa. Although the Orange Free State developed into a politically and economically successful republic, it experienced chronic conflict with the British (in the Boer Wars) until it was finally annexed as the Orange River Colony in 1900.
The Orange River Colony was the British colony created after Britain first occupied (1900) and then annexed (1902) the independent Orange Free State in the Second Boer War.

Free State (province)

Free StateOrange Free StateFree State province
The Orange Free State (Oranje-Vrijstaat, Oranje-Vrystaat, abbreviated as OVS ) was an independent Boer sovereign republic in southern Africa during the second half of the 19th century, which later became a British colony and a province of the Union of South Africa. Following a period of direct rule by the British, it joined the Union of South Africa in 1910 as the Orange Free State Province, along with the Cape Province, Natal, and the Transvaal.
Its historical origins lie in the Boer republic called Orange Free State and later Orange Free State Province.

Union of South Africa

South AfricaUnionSouth African
The Orange Free State (Oranje-Vrijstaat, Oranje-Vrystaat, abbreviated as OVS ) was an independent Boer sovereign republic in southern Africa during the second half of the 19th century, which later became a British colony and a province of the Union of South Africa. Following a period of direct rule by the British, it joined the Union of South Africa in 1910 as the Orange Free State Province, along with the Cape Province, Natal, and the Transvaal.
It included the territories that were formerly a part of the South African Republic and the Orange Free State.

Winburg

In the northern part of the territory a Voortrekker Republic was established at Winburg in 1837.
It is the oldest proclaimed town (1837) in the Orange Free State, South Africa and thus along with Griquatown, one of the oldest settlements in South Africa located north of the Orange River.

Orange River Sovereignty

Dutch Free State
Extending between the Orange and Vaal rivers, its borders were determined by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1848 when the region was proclaimed as the Orange River Sovereignty, with a seat of a British Resident in Bloemfontein. Following the granting of sovereignty to the Transvaal Republic, the British recognised the independence of the Orange River Sovereignty and the country officially became independent as the Orange Free State on 23 February 1854, with the signing of the Orange River Convention.
In 1854, it became the Orange Free State, and is now the Free State province of South Africa.

Bloemfontein

Bloemfontein, South AfricaTempebloem
Extending between the Orange and Vaal rivers, its borders were determined by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1848 when the region was proclaimed as the Orange River Sovereignty, with a seat of a British Resident in Bloemfontein.
With colonial policy shifts, the region changed into the Orange River Sovereignty (1848–54) and eventually the Orange Free State Republic (1854–1902).

Resident (title)

ResidentBritish ResidentResident Minister
Extending between the Orange and Vaal rivers, its borders were determined by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1848 when the region was proclaimed as the Orange River Sovereignty, with a seat of a British Resident in Bloemfontein.
in 1845 the resident 'north of the Orange river' chose his residency at Bloemfontein, which became the capital of the Orange River Sovereignty in 1848. In 1854 the British abandoned the Sovereignty, and the independent Boer republic of the Orange Free State was established

Treaty of Vereeniging

VereenigingTreaty of the Peace of Vereenigingconclusion of peace
It ceased to exist as an independent Boer republic on 31 May 1902 with the signing of the Treaty of Vereeniging at the conclusion of the Second Anglo-Boer War.
The Treaty of Vereeniging (commonly referred to as Peace of Vereeniging) was the peace treaty, signed on 31 May 1902, that ended the Second Boer War between the South African Republic and the Republic of the Orange Free State, on the one side, and the United Kingdom on the other.

Boer Republics

Boer RepublicrepublicBoer
It ceased to exist as an independent Boer republic on 31 May 1902 with the signing of the Treaty of Vereeniging at the conclusion of the Second Anglo-Boer War.
Two of the Boer Republics achieved international recognition and complete independence: the South African Republic (ZAR or Transvaal) and the Orange Free State.

Cape Province

CapeCape of Good HopeProvince of the Cape of Good Hope
Following a period of direct rule by the British, it joined the Union of South Africa in 1910 as the Orange Free State Province, along with the Cape Province, Natal, and the Transvaal.
At the time of the formation of the Union of South Africa, South Africa consisted of four provinces: Transvaal (formerly the South African Republic), Natal, Orange Free State and the Cape Province.

Transvaal (province)

TransvaalTransvaal ProvinceNorthern Transvaal
Following a period of direct rule by the British, it joined the Union of South Africa in 1910 as the Orange Free State Province, along with the Cape Province, Natal, and the Transvaal.
The Transvaal province lay between the Vaal River in the south, and the Limpopo River in the north, roughly between 22 1⁄2 and 27 1⁄2 S, and 25 and 32 E. To its south it bordered with the Orange Free State and Natal provinces, to its west were the Cape Province and the Bechuanaland Protectorate (later Botswana), to its north Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe), and to its east Portuguese East Africa (later Mozambique) and Swaziland.

Boer

Boerstrekboerswhite farmers
The Orange Free State (Oranje-Vrijstaat, Oranje-Vrystaat, abbreviated as OVS ) was an independent Boer sovereign republic in southern Africa during the second half of the 19th century, which later became a British colony and a province of the Union of South Africa. In 1824 farmers of Dutch, French Huguenot and German descent known as Voortrekkers (later named Boers by the English) walked from the Cape Colony, seeking pasture for their flocks and to escape British governmental oversight, settling in the country.
In addition, the term "Boers" also applied to those who left the Cape Colony during the 19th century to settle in the Orange Free State, Transvaal (together known as the Boer Republics), and to a lesser extent Natal.

Great Trek

voortrekkervoortrekkersBoer Trek
In the northern part of the territory a Voortrekker Republic was established at Winburg in 1837. In 1824 farmers of Dutch, French Huguenot and German descent known as Voortrekkers (later named Boers by the English) walked from the Cape Colony, seeking pasture for their flocks and to escape British governmental oversight, settling in the country.
The Great Trek led directly to the founding of several autonomous Boer republics, namely the South African Republic (also known simply as the Transvaal), the Orange Free State, and the Natalia Republic.

Vaal River

VaalTransvaalRiver Vaal
Extending between the Orange and Vaal rivers, its borders were determined by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1848 when the region was proclaimed as the Orange River Sovereignty, with a seat of a British Resident in Bloemfontein.
Historically, the river formed the northern border of Moshoeshoe I's Basotho kingdom at its height in the mid-19th century, then became the boundary between two Boer republics: The South African Republic (later the Transvaal province) and the Orange Free State.

Orange River Convention

Following the granting of sovereignty to the Transvaal Republic, the British recognised the independence of the Orange River Sovereignty and the country officially became independent as the Orange Free State on 23 February 1854, with the signing of the Orange River Convention.
This resulted in the formation of the independent Boer Republic of the Orange Free State (OFS).

South African Republic

TransvaalTransvaal RepublicZuid-Afrikaansche Republiek
Following the granting of sovereignty to the Transvaal Republic, the British recognised the independence of the Orange River Sovereignty and the country officially became independent as the Orange Free State on 23 February 1854, with the signing of the Orange River Convention. This state was in federation with the Republic of Potchefstroom which later formed part of the South African Republic (Transvaal).
On 3 November 1884 the country signed a Postal convention with the government of the Cape Colony and later similarly with the Orange Free State.

Sotho people

SothoBasothoMosotho
Moshoeshoe, a Basotho king, had welded together a number of scattered and broken clans which had sought refuge in that mountainous region after fleeing from Mzilikazi, and had formed the Basotho nation.
Most Basotho today live in South Africa, as the area of the Orange Free State was originally part of Moshoeshoe's nation (now Lesotho).

Cape Colony

Cape of Good HopeCapeGovernor of the Cape of Good Hope
In 1824 farmers of Dutch, French Huguenot and German descent known as Voortrekkers (later named Boers by the English) walked from the Cape Colony, seeking pasture for their flocks and to escape British governmental oversight, settling in the country.
This was known as the Great Trek, and the migrating Boers settled inland, forming the "Boer republics" of Transvaal and the Orange Free State.

Natalia Republic

NataliaNatalRepublic of Natalia
The year in which the treaty with Moshoeshoe was made, several large parties of Boers recrossed the Drakensberg into the country north of the Orange, refusing to remain in Natal when the British annexed the newly formed Boer Republic of Natalia to form the Colony of Natal. The first president was Josias Philip Hoffman, but he was accused of being too complaisant towards Moshoeshoe and resigned, being succeeded in 1855 by Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff, one of the voortrekkers, who had previously taken an active part in the affairs of the Natalia Republic.
After the British annexation of the Natalia Republic, most local Voortrekkers trekked north into Transorangia, later known as the Orange Free State, and the Transvaal.

Military history of South Africa

Boer WarSecond Boer WarAnglo-Boer War
Although the Orange Free State developed into a politically and economically successful republic, it experienced chronic conflict with the British (in the Boer Wars) until it was finally annexed as the Orange River Colony in 1900.
The war was fought between Great Britain and the two independent Boer republics of the Orange Free State and the South African Republic (referred to as the Transvaal by the British).

Paul Kruger

KrugerPresident KrugerPresident Paul Kruger
Thereupon Pretorius, aided by Paul Kruger, conducted a raid into the Free State territory.
Nicknamed Oom Paul ("Uncle Paul"), he came to international prominence as the face of the Boer cause—that of the Transvaal and its neighbour the Orange Free State—against Britain during the Second Boer War of 1899–1902.

Griqua people

GriquaGriquasKorana
Early in the 19th century Griquas established themselves north of the Orange.
He eventually led them beyond the Cape Colony, near the Orange River just west and south of what would eventually become the Boer Republics of the Orange Free State and Transvaal, respectively.

Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff

State President BoshoffBoshoffJ.N. Boshoff
The first president was Josias Philip Hoffman, but he was accused of being too complaisant towards Moshoeshoe and resigned, being succeeded in 1855 by Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff, one of the voortrekkers, who had previously taken an active part in the affairs of the Natalia Republic.
Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff (31 January 1808 – 21 April 1881) was a South African (Boer) statesman, member of the Voortrekker movement, and the second state president of the Orange Free State, in office from 1855 to 1859.

Zulu Kingdom

ZululandZuluZulus
Dissensions speedily arose among the emigrants, whose numbers were constantly added to, and Retief, Potgieter and other leaders crossed the Drakensberg and entered Natal.
In November, about 1,000 Voortrekker wagons began descending the Drakensberg mountains from the Orange Free State into what is now KwaZulu-Natal.

Burgher (Boer republics)

burghersburgher
All persons of European blood possessing a six months' residential qualification were to be granted full burgher rights.
In the Orange Free State (1854–1902), the constitution restricted burgher rights to white male residents only, though coloured people (those of mixed ancestry) did have some rights regarding property.