Orange River Colony

Orange Rivera British colonycolonyO.R.C.Orange ColonyOrange River Colony DistrictOrange River Colony, South Africa
The Orange River Colony was the British colony created after Britain first occupied (1900) and then annexed (1902) the independent Orange Free State in the Second Boer War.wikipedia
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Orange Free State

Free StateOrange Free State RepublicRepublic of the Orange Free State
The Orange River Colony was the British colony created after Britain first occupied (1900) and then annexed (1902) the independent Orange Free State in the Second Boer War.
The Orange Free State (Oranje-Vrijstaat, Oranje-Vrystaat, abbreviated as OVS ) was an independent Boer sovereign republic in southern Africa during the second half of the 19th century, which later became a British colony and a province of the Union of South Africa.

Union of South Africa

South AfricaUnionSouth African
The colony ceased to exist in 1910, when it was absorbed into the Union of South Africa as Orange Free State Province. At the eventual National Convention, former State President M. T. Steyn took a leading and conciliatory part, and subsequently the Orange River legislature agreed to the terms drawn up by the convention for the unification of the four self-governing colonies in the Union of South Africa.
It came into being on 31 May 1910 with the unification of the Cape Colony, the Natal Colony, the Transvaal, and the Orange River Colony.

Bloemfontein

Bloemfontein, South AfricaTempebloem
During the Second Boer War, the British forces entered the territory of the Orange Free State and occupied the capital Bloemfontein on 13 March 1900.
From 1902–10 it served as the capital of the Orange River Colony and since that time as the provincial capital of the Free State.

Abraham Fischer

A. Fischer
The chairman of the Orangia Unie was Abraham Fischer, leading politician of the pre-Boer War period and top diplomat of the Boer republics during the Second Boer War.
He was the sole Prime Minister of the Orange River Colony in South Africa, and when that ceased to exist joined the cabinet of the newly formed Union of South Africa.

Hamilton Goold-Adams

Sir Hamilton John Goold-AdamsSir Hamilton Goold-AdamsHamilton John Goold-Adams
On the British side, Sir Alfred Milner was appointed Administrator of the Orange River Colony on 4 January 1901, with Hamilton John Goold-Adams as lieutenant-governor.
He was appointed Deputy Commissioner of the Orange River Colony under the Administrator Sir Alfred Milner (later Lord Milner) in January 1901.

J. B. M. Hertzog

J.B.M. HertzogHertzogJames Barry Munnik Hertzog
Among the other prominent members were J. B. M. Hertzog, Christiaan de Wet and Martinus Theunis Steyn.
In 1907, the Orange River Colony gained self-government and Hertzog joined the cabinet as Attorney-General and Director of Education.

William Palmer, 2nd Earl of Selborne

Lord SelborneThe Earl of SelborneViscount Wolmer
William Palmer, 2nd Earl of Selborne, in office 2 April 1905 – 7 June 1907;
He ceased to be governor of the Orange River Colony on its assumption of self-government in June 1907, but retained his other posts until May 1910, retiring on the eve of the establishment of the Union of South Africa.

Pretoria

Pretoria, GautengPretoria, South AfricaSilverton
In May 1908, the Orange River Colony took part in an inter-state conference which met at Pretoria and Cape Town, and determined to renew the existing customs convention and to make no alteration in railway rates.
The Boer Republics of the ZAR and the Orange River Colony were united with the Cape Colony and Natal Colony in 1910 to become the Union of South Africa.

Christiaan de Wet

De WetGeneral Christiaan de WetGeneral de Wet
Among the other prominent members were J. B. M. Hertzog, Christiaan de Wet and Martinus Theunis Steyn. On the Boer side, the government was led by state president Martinus Theunis Steyn (1857–1916) until 30 May 1902, when he went on sick-leave and was replaced by general Christiaan de Wet as acting state president.
De Wet wrote an account of his campaigns, an English version of which appeared in November 1902 under the title De Stryd tusschen Boer en Brit (Three Years War). In November 1907, he was elected a member of the first parliament of the Orange River Colony and was appointed minister of agriculture.

National Convention (South Africa)

National ConventionSouth African National Conventioncreation
At the eventual National Convention, former State President M. T. Steyn took a leading and conciliatory part, and subsequently the Orange River legislature agreed to the terms drawn up by the convention for the unification of the four self-governing colonies in the Union of South Africa.
The four colonies of the area that would become South Africa - the Cape Colony, Natal Colony, the Orange River Colony and the Transvaal Colony - were represented at the convention, along with a delegation from Rhodesia.

Transvaal Colony

TransvaalWestern TransvaalColony of Transvaal
In 1905 Lord Selborne, formerly First Lord of the Admiralty, replaced Viscount Milner as high commissioner for South Africa and governor of the Transvaal and Orange River colonies.
The colonies of the Transvaal, Orange River and Natal wanted no black enfranchisement while the Cape Colony wished to keep what limited enfranchisement it had for all other races.

Het Volk (political party)

Het VolkHet Volk Party
A similar organisation, called Het Volk, had been formed by the Transvaal Boers in January 1905.
Upon the creation of the Union of South Africa in May 1910, it merged with Afrikaner Bond, the South African Party, and the Orangia Unie, the dominant political parties of the Cape Colony and Orange River Colony (formerly the Orange Free State), creating the pan-Union South African Party.

Burgher (Boer republics)

burghersburgher
A second political party, the Constitutional Party was formed by a group of burghers content with British rule.
Following the British victory in the latter and the Treaty of Vereeniging, the Free State and the Transvaal were annexed by Britain as the Orange River Colony and Transvaal Colony.

Cornelius Hermanus Wessels

C.H. Wessels
Cornelius Hermanus Wessels, minister of public works
After his return to the Orange River Colony, he refused to take part in the British colonial administration, but he did use his diplomatic skills to promote mutual understanding between the Afrikaner citizens and the British government.

Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner

Lord MilnerAlfred MilnerSir Alfred Milner
On the British side, Sir Alfred Milner was appointed Administrator of the Orange River Colony on 4 January 1901, with Hamilton John Goold-Adams as lieutenant-governor.
The work of reconstructing the civil administration in the Transvaal and Orange River Colony could only be carried on to a limited extent while operations continued in the field.

Crown colony

crown coloniesBritish coloniesBritish crown colony
The Orange River Colony was the British colony created after Britain first occupied (1900) and then annexed (1902) the independent Orange Free State in the Second Boer War.

Second Boer War

Boer WarAnglo-Boer WarSouth African War
The Orange River Colony was the British colony created after Britain first occupied (1900) and then annexed (1902) the independent Orange Free State in the Second Boer War. During the Second Boer War, the British forces entered the territory of the Orange Free State and occupied the capital Bloemfontein on 13 March 1900. The chairman of the Orangia Unie was Abraham Fischer, leading politician of the pre-Boer War period and top diplomat of the Boer republics during the Second Boer War.

Kroonstad

The Orange Free State government had moved to Kroonstad during the first months of the war and would subsequently convene in the field until the end of the war.

Treaty of Vereeniging

VereenigingTreaty of the Peace of Vereenigingconclusion of peace
From the perspective of the Orange Free State, independence was only lost with the ratification of the Treaty of Vereeniging on 31 May 1902.

Martinus Theunis Steyn

SteynPresident SteynM.T. Steyn
Among the other prominent members were J. B. M. Hertzog, Christiaan de Wet and Martinus Theunis Steyn. On the Boer side, the government was led by state president Martinus Theunis Steyn (1857–1916) until 30 May 1902, when he went on sick-leave and was replaced by general Christiaan de Wet as acting state president.

Afrikaner Bond

Both unions had constitutions almost identical with that of the Afrikaner Bond, a former pan-Afrikaner political movement, and their aims were also similar – to secure the position of the Afrikaners in state and society.

John G. Fraser

J.G. Fraser
Chairman of the party was Sir John G. Fraser, before the Second Boer War a prominent (pro-British) member of the Volksraad of the Orange Free State.

Volksraad

Chairman of the party was Sir John G. Fraser, before the Second Boer War a prominent (pro-British) member of the Volksraad of the Orange Free State.

First Lord of the Admiralty

First LordFirst Lords of the Admiraltyappointed
In 1905 Lord Selborne, formerly First Lord of the Admiralty, replaced Viscount Milner as high commissioner for South Africa and governor of the Transvaal and Orange River colonies.

Liberal Party (UK)

LiberalLiberal PartyLiberals
When Liberal Party came into office in Britain in December 1905 the process was speeded up, with the decision to give both the Transvaal and Orange River colonies self-government without delay.