Orbital cellulitis

orbit
Orbital cellulitis is inflammation of eye tissues behind the orbital septum.wikipedia
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Periorbital cellulitis

cellulitisinfectious eye conditionperiorbit
It should not be confused with periorbital cellulitis, which refers to cellulitis anterior to the septum.
Periorbital cellulitis, also known as preseptal cellulitis (and not to be confused with orbital cellulitis, which is posterior to the orbital septum), is an inflammation and infection of the eyelid and portions of skin around the eye anterior to the orbital septum.

Exophthalmos

proptosisexophthalmiaexophthalmic
Orbital cellulitis commonly presents with painful eye movement, sudden vision loss, chemosis, bulging of the infected eye, and limited eye movement.
Orbital cellulitis – often with unilateral proptosis, severe redness, and moderate to severe pain, sinusitis and an elevated white blood cell count.

Cavernous sinus thrombosis

Complications include hearing loss, blood infection, meningitis, cavernous sinus thrombosis, cerebral abscess, and blindness.
Less common primary sites of infection include tonsils, soft palate, middle ear, or orbit (orbital cellulitis).

Ophthalmoparesis

ophthalmoplegiadifficulty moving the eyesextraocular muscle paresis
Orbital cellulitis commonly presents with painful eye movement, sudden vision loss, chemosis, bulging of the infected eye, and limited eye movement.
Infection around the eye. Ophthalmoplegia is an important finding in orbital cellulitis.

Orbital septum

septum
Orbital cellulitis is inflammation of eye tissues behind the orbital septum.
The orbital septum is an important landmark in distinguishing between orbital cellulitis (inside the septum) and periorbital cellulitis (outside the septum).

Idiopathic orbital inflammatory disease

Orbital pseudotumoridiopathic orbital inflammatory syndromeinfiltrative orbitopathy
Inflammatory causes (thyroid eye disease, idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome, sarcoidosis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis)
A differential diagnosis includes lymphoproliferative lesions, thyroid ophthalmopathy, IgG4-related ophthalmic disease, sarcoidosis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, orbital cellulitis and carotid-cavernous fistula.

Inflammation

inflammatoryinflammatory responseinflamed
Orbital cellulitis is inflammation of eye tissues behind the orbital septum.

Human eye

eyeeyeseyeball
Orbital cellulitis is inflammation of eye tissues behind the orbital septum.

Cellulitis

pelvic cellulitisbacterial skin infectioncellulitus
When it affects the rear of the eye, it is known as retro-orbital cellulitis.

Visual perception

visionsighteyesight
Orbital cellulitis commonly presents with painful eye movement, sudden vision loss, chemosis, bulging of the infected eye, and limited eye movement.

Chemosis

eye swellingswelling of the conjunctiva
Orbital cellulitis commonly presents with painful eye movement, sudden vision loss, chemosis, bulging of the infected eye, and limited eye movement.

Erythema

erythematousrednessred
Along with these symptoms, patients typically have redness and swelling of the eyelid, pain, discharge, inability to open the eye, occasional fever and lethargy.

Eyelid

eyelidspalpebralpalpebra
Along with these symptoms, patients typically have redness and swelling of the eyelid, pain, discharge, inability to open the eye, occasional fever and lethargy.

Sepsis

septicemiasepticaemiablood poisoning
Complications include hearing loss, blood infection, meningitis, cavernous sinus thrombosis, cerebral abscess, and blindness.

Meningitis

spinal meningitisbacterial meningitiscerebral meningitis
Complications include hearing loss, blood infection, meningitis, cavernous sinus thrombosis, cerebral abscess, and blindness.

Pathogenic bacteria

bacterial infectionbacterial infectionsbacterial
Orbital cellulitis occurs commonly from bacterial infection spread via the paranasal sinuses, usually from a previous sinus infection.

Paranasal sinuses

sinusessinusparanasal sinus
Orbital cellulitis occurs commonly from bacterial infection spread via the paranasal sinuses, usually from a previous sinus infection.

Sinusitis

sinus infectionrhinosinusitischronic sinusitis
Upper respiratory infection, sinus infection, trauma to the eye, ocular or periocular infection, and systemic infection all increase one's risk of orbital cellulitis.

Staphylococcus aureus

S. aureusstaph infectionmethicillin-sensitive ''Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenza B, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and beta-hemolytic streptococci are bacteria that can be responsible for orbital cellulitis.

Streptococcus pneumoniae

pneumococcuspneumococcalpneumococci
Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenza B, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and beta-hemolytic streptococci are bacteria that can be responsible for orbital cellulitis.

Streptococcus pyogenes

S. pyogenesgroup A streptococcusgroup A beta-hemolytic ''Streptococcus
Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenza B, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and beta-hemolytic streptococci are bacteria that can be responsible for orbital cellulitis.

Gram-positive bacteria

gram-positivegram positivegram-positive bacterium
Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive bacterium, which is the most common cause of staphylococcal infections. Staphylococcus aureus infection can spread from the skin to the orbit. This organism is able to produce toxins which promotes its virulence, leading to the inflammatory response seen in orbital cellulitis. Staphylococcus infections are identified by a cluster arrangement on gram stain. Staphylococcus aureus forms large yellow colonies when cultured (which is distinct from other Staph infections such as Staphylococcus epidermidis, which forms white colonies).

Virulence

virulentavirulenceavirulent
Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive bacterium, which is the most common cause of staphylococcal infections. Staphylococcus aureus infection can spread from the skin to the orbit. This organism is able to produce toxins which promotes its virulence, leading to the inflammatory response seen in orbital cellulitis. Staphylococcus infections are identified by a cluster arrangement on gram stain. Staphylococcus aureus forms large yellow colonies when cultured (which is distinct from other Staph infections such as Staphylococcus epidermidis, which forms white colonies).

Gram stain

GramGram-negativeGram-positive
Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive bacterium, which is the most common cause of staphylococcal infections. Staphylococcus aureus infection can spread from the skin to the orbit. This organism is able to produce toxins which promotes its virulence, leading to the inflammatory response seen in orbital cellulitis. Staphylococcus infections are identified by a cluster arrangement on gram stain. Staphylococcus aureus forms large yellow colonies when cultured (which is distinct from other Staph infections such as Staphylococcus epidermidis, which forms white colonies).

Staphylococcus epidermidis

S. epidermidismethicillin-resistant ''Staphylococcus epidermidiscoagulase-negative staphylococci
Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive bacterium, which is the most common cause of staphylococcal infections. Staphylococcus aureus infection can spread from the skin to the orbit. This organism is able to produce toxins which promotes its virulence, leading to the inflammatory response seen in orbital cellulitis. Staphylococcus infections are identified by a cluster arrangement on gram stain. Staphylococcus aureus forms large yellow colonies when cultured (which is distinct from other Staph infections such as Staphylococcus epidermidis, which forms white colonies).