A report on Order (biology)

Title page of the 1758 edition of Linnaeus's Systema Naturæ.

One of the eight major hierarchical taxonomic ranks in Linnaean taxonomy.

- Order (biology)
Title page of the 1758 edition of Linnaeus's Systema Naturæ.

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Description of rare animals (写生珍禽图), by Song dynasty painter Huang Quan (903–965)

Taxonomy (biology)

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Scientific study of naming, defining and classifying groups of biological organisms based on shared characteristics.

Scientific study of naming, defining and classifying groups of biological organisms based on shared characteristics.

Description of rare animals (写生珍禽图), by Song dynasty painter Huang Quan (903–965)
Title page of Systema Naturae, Leiden, 1735
Evolution of the vertebrates at class level, width of spindles indicating number of families. Spindle diagrams are typical for evolutionary taxonomy
The same relationship, expressed as a cladogram typical for cladistics
The basic scheme of modern classification. Many other levels can be used; domain, the highest level within life, is both new and disputed.
Type specimen for Nepenthes smilesii, a tropical pitcher plant
A comparison of phylogenetic and phenetic (character-based) concepts

The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus, and species.

The original synapsid skull structure contains one temporal opening behind the orbitals, in a fairly low position on the skull (lower right in this image). This opening might have assisted in containing the jaw muscles of these organisms which could have increased their biting strength.

Mammal

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Mammals are a group of vertebrate animals constituting the class Mammalia, characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in females produce milk for feeding (nursing) their young, a neocortex (a region of the brain), fur or hair, and three middle ear bones.

Mammals are a group of vertebrate animals constituting the class Mammalia, characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in females produce milk for feeding (nursing) their young, a neocortex (a region of the brain), fur or hair, and three middle ear bones.

The original synapsid skull structure contains one temporal opening behind the orbitals, in a fairly low position on the skull (lower right in this image). This opening might have assisted in containing the jaw muscles of these organisms which could have increased their biting strength.
Restoration of Juramaia sinensis, the oldest known Eutherian (160 M.Y.A.)
Fossil of Thrinaxodon at the National Museum of Natural History
Raccoon lungs being inflated manually
Mammal skin: 1 — hair, 2 — epidermis, 3 — sebaceous gland, 4 — Arrector pili muscle, 5 — dermis, 6 — hair follicle, 7 — sweat gland, 8 (not labeled, the bottom layer) — hypodermis, showing round adipocytes
Bovine kidney
A diagram of ultrasonic signals emitted by a bat, and the echo from a nearby object
Porcupines use their spines for defense.
A leopard's disruptively colored coat provides camouflage for this ambush predator.
Goat kids stay with their mother until they are weaned.
Matschie's tree-kangaroo with young in pouch
Running gait. Photographs by Eadweard Muybridge, 1887.
Gibbons are very good brachiators because their elongated limbs enable them to easily swing and grasp on to branches.
Vervet monkeys use at least four distinct alarm calls for different predators.
A bonobo fishing for termites with a stick
Female elephants live in stable groups, along with their offspring.
Red kangaroos "boxing" for dominance
Upper Paleolithic cave painting of a variety of large mammals, Lascaux, c. 17,300 years old
Cattle have been kept for milk for thousands of years.
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Biodiversity of large mammal species per continent before and after humans arrived there
Sexual dimorphism in aurochs, the extinct wild ancestor of cattle.

Around 6,400 extant species of mammals have been described divided into 29 orders.

The major ranks: domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species, applied to the red fox, Vulpes vulpes.

Taxonomic rank

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Relative level of a group of organisms in a taxonomic hierarchy.

Relative level of a group of organisms in a taxonomic hierarchy.

The major ranks: domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species, applied to the red fox, Vulpes vulpes.

Examples of taxonomic ranks are species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, domain, etc.

A 1927 drawing of chimpanzees, a gibbon (top right) and two orangutans (center and bottom center): The chimpanzee in the upper left is brachiating; the orangutan at the bottom center is knuckle-walking.

Primate

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A 1927 drawing of chimpanzees, a gibbon (top right) and two orangutans (center and bottom center): The chimpanzee in the upper left is brachiating; the orangutan at the bottom center is knuckle-walking.
Homo sapiens is the only living primate species that is fully bipedal.
Nilgiri langur (Trachypithecus johnii), an Old World monkey
Common brown lemur, a Strepsirrhine primate
Emperor tamarin, a New World monkey
Primate skulls showing postorbital bar, and increasing brain sizes
An 1893 drawing of the hands and feet of various primates
Vervet hindfoot showing fingerprint ridges on the sole
Distinct sexual size dimorphism can be seen between the male and female mountain gorilla.
Diademed sifaka, a lemur that is a vertical clinger and leaper
The tapetum lucidum of a northern greater galago, typical of prosimians, reflects the light of the photographer's flash
A social huddle of ring-tailed lemurs. The two individuals on the right exposing their white ventral surface are sunning themselves.
Chimpanzees are social great apes.
A crab-eating macaque breastfeeding her baby
Leaf eating mantled guereza, a species of black-and-white colobus
A mouse lemur holds a cut piece of fruit in its hands and eats
Humans have traditionally hunted prey for subsistence.
A western lowland gorilla using a stick possibly to gauge the depth of water
Crab-eating macaques with stone tools
Rhesus macaque at Agra Fort, India
Slow lorises are popular in the exotic pet trade, which threatens wild populations.
Sam, a rhesus macaque, was flown into space by NASA in 1959.
Humans are known to hunt other primates for food, so-called bushmeat. Pictured are two men who have killed a number of silky sifaka and white-headed brown lemurs.
The critically endangered silky sifaka
The critically endangered Sumatran orangutan

Primates are a diverse order of mammals.

Archaeopteryx lithographica is often considered the oldest known true bird.

Bird

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Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class Aves, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.

Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class Aves, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.

Archaeopteryx lithographica is often considered the oldest known true bird.
Anchiornis huxleyi is an important source of information on the early evolution of birds in the Late Jurassic period.
Simplified phylogenetic tree showing the relationship between modern birds and dinosaurs
Confuciusornis sanctus, a Cretaceous bird from China that lived 125 million years ago, is the oldest known bird to have a beak.
Ichthyornis, which lived 93 million years ago, was the first known prehistoric bird relative preserved with teeth.
The range of the house sparrow has expanded dramatically due to human activities.
External anatomy of a bird (example: yellow-wattled lapwing): 1 Beak, 2 Head, 3 Iris, 4 Pupil, 5 Mantle, 6 Lesser coverts, 7 Scapulars, 8 Median coverts, 9 Tertials, 10 Rump, 11 Primaries, 12 Vent, 13 Thigh, 14 Tibio-tarsal articulation, 15 Tarsus, 16 Foot, 17 Tibia, 18 Belly, 19 Flanks, 20 Breast, 21 Throat, 22 Wattle, 23 Eyestripe
Didactic model of an avian heart
The nictitating membrane as it covers the eye of a masked lapwing
The disruptively patterned plumage of the African scops owl allows it to blend in with its surroundings.
Red lory preening
Restless flycatcher in the downstroke of flapping flight
Feeding adaptations in beaks
A flock of Canada geese in V formation
The routes of satellite-tagged bar-tailed godwits migrating north from New Zealand. This species has the longest known non-stop migration of any species, up to 10200 km.
The startling display of the sunbittern mimics a large predator.
Red-billed queleas, the most numerous species of wild bird, form enormous flocks – sometimes tens of thousands strong.
Many birds, like this American flamingo, tuck their head into their back when sleeping.
Like others of its family, the male Raggiana bird-of-paradise has elaborate breeding plumage used to impress females.
Male golden-backed weavers construct elaborate suspended nests out of grass.
Nest of an eastern phoebe that has been parasitised by a brown-headed cowbird
A female calliope hummingbird feeding fully grown chicks
Altricial chicks of a white-breasted woodswallow
Reed warbler raising a common cuckoo, a brood parasite
The peacock tail in flight, the classic example of a Fisherian runaway
Gran Canaria blue chaffinch, an example of a bird highly specialised in its habitat, in this case in the Canarian pine forests
Industrial farming of chickens
The use of cormorants by Asian fishermen is in steep decline but survives in some areas as a tourist attraction.
The 3 of Birds by the Master of the Playing Cards, 15th-century Germany
Painted tiles with design of birds from Qajar dynasty
The California condor once numbered only 22 birds, but conservation measures have raised that to over 500 today.

These two subdivisions have variously been given the rank of superorder, cohort, or infraclass.

Invertebrate

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Invertebrates are species of animal that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.

Invertebrates are species of animal that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.

Tracheal system of dissected cockroach. The largest tracheae run across the width of the body of the cockroach and are horizontal in this image. Scale bar, 2 mm.
The tracheal system branches into progressively smaller tubes, here supplying the crop of the cockroach. Scale bar, 2.0 mm.
The fossil coral Cladocora from the Pliocene of Cyprus

The distribution of spiracles can vary greatly among the many orders of insects, but in general each segment of the body can have only one pair of spiracles, each of which connects to an atrium and has a relatively large tracheal tube behind it.

Passerine

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Pterylosis or the feather tracts in a typical passerine
Male superb lyrebird (Menura novaehollandiae): This very primitive songbird shows strong sexual dimorphism, with a peculiarly apomorphic display of plumage in males.
Wieslochia fossil
New Zealand rock wren (Xenicus gilviventris), one of the two surviving species of suborder Acanthisitti
Javan banded pitta (Hydrornis guajanus), an Old World suboscine.
Andean cock-of-the-rock (Rupicola peruvianus) a New World suboscine
Male stitchbird or hihi (Notiomystis cincta) showing convergence with honeyeaters
Male regent bowerbird (Sericulus chrysocephalus, Ptilonorhynchidae)
Tiny goldcrest (Regulus regulus) belongs to a minor but highly distinct lineage of Passeri
Reed warblers, such as this Blyth's reed warbler (Acrocephalus dumetorum), are now in the Acrocephalidae
Eurasian blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) and its relatives stand well apart from rest of the Sylvioidea sensu lato
Brown-headed nuthatch (Sitta pusilla), nuthatches can climb downwards head-first
Hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus), like many Muscicapoidea a stout and cryptic bird with complex vocalizations.
Like these male (right) and female Gouldian finches (Erythrura gouldiae), many Passeroidea are very colorful
Lesser striped swallow (Cecropis abyssinica), showing some apomorphies of its ancient yet highly advanced lineage.
Gran Canaria blue chaffinch (male)

A passerine is any bird of the order Passeriformes (from Latin passer 'sparrow' and formis '-shaped'), which includes more than half of all bird species.

Sea anemone

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Sea anemone anatomy. 1. Tentacles 2. Mouth 3. Retracting muscles 4. Gonads 5. Acontial filaments 6. Pedal disk 7. Ostium 8. Coelenteron 9. Sphincter muscle 10. Mesentery 11. Column 12. Pharynx
Actinodendron arboreum, the hell's-fire anemone
Striped colonial anemone
Brooding anemone (Epiactis prolifera) with developing young
Assortment of sea anemones from Ernst Haeckel's Kunstformen der Natur
Tentacles of Aulactinia veratra catch passing prey and thrust it into the mouth in the middle of the oral disc.
The Venus flytrap sea anemone is a suspension feeder and orients itself to face the current.
Ocellaris clownfish among the tentacles of a sebae anemone
(2) and (3) Mackenzia, Middle Cambrian. Sea anemones do not fossilize well, having no hard parts, and this one was mistakenly identified as a sea cucumber.

Sea anemones are a group of predatory marine animals of the order Actiniaria.

Title page of the 1758 edition of Linnaeus's Systema Naturæ.

Systema Naturae

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One of the major works of the Swedish botanist, zoologist and physician Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) and introduced the Linnaean taxonomy.

One of the major works of the Swedish botanist, zoologist and physician Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) and introduced the Linnaean taxonomy.

Title page of the 1758 edition of Linnaeus's Systema Naturæ.
Title page of the 1758 edition of Linnaeus's Systema Naturæ.
The 1735 classification of animals
Key to the Sexual System from the 10th (1758) edition of Systema Naturæ

The classification was based on five levels: kingdom, class, order, genus, and species.

Dictyotales

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Dictyotales is a large order in the brown algae (class Phaeophyceae).