Order of succession

successionline of successionsuccession lawssuccession lawsucceededhereditary successionroyal successionsuccession ordercollateral successionlateral succession
An order of succession or right of succession is the sequence of those entitled to hold a high office such as head of state or an honor such as a title of nobility in the order in which they stand in line to it when it becomes vacated.wikipedia
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Monarchy

kingdommonarchieskingdoms
Upon the death of the grantee, a designated inheritance such as a peerage, or a monarchy, passes automatically to that living, legitimate, non-adoptive relative of the grantee who is most senior in descent (i.e. highest in the line of succession, regardless of age); and thereafter continues to pass to subsequent successors of the grantee, according to the same rules, upon the death of each subsequent heir.
In most cases, the succession of monarchies is hereditary, but there are also elective and self-proclaimed monarchies, often forming dynastic periods and association, which is sometimes challenged by diverging lineage and legitimism.

Primogeniture

agnatic primogenitureabsolute primogenituremale-preference primogeniture
The rules may stipulate that eligible heirs are heirs male or heirs general – see further primogeniture (agnatic, cognatic, and also equal). Generally, hereditary monarchies that operate under the Salic law also use primogeniture among male descendants in the male line to determine the rightful successor, although in earlier history agnatic seniority was more usual than primogeniture.
Currently, succession to the Saudi Arabian throne uses a form of lateral agnatic seniority, as did the Kievan Rus' (see Rota system), the early Kingdom of Scotland (see Tanistry), the Mongol Empire (see lateral succession) or the later Ottoman Empire (see succession practices).

Monarch

kingSovereignkings
In hereditary monarchies the order of succession determines who becomes the new monarch when the incumbent sovereign dies or otherwise vacates the throne.
Different systems of succession have been used, such as proximity of blood (male preference or absolute), primogeniture, agnatic seniority, Salic law, etc. While traditionally most monarchs have been male, female monarchs have also ruled, and the term queen regnant refers to a ruling monarch, as distinct from a queen consort, the wife of a reigning king.

Hereditary monarchy

hereditaryhereditary monarchieshereditary monarch
In hereditary monarchies the order of succession determines who becomes the new monarch when the incumbent sovereign dies or otherwise vacates the throne. Hereditary government form differs from elected government.
Hereditary monarchy is a form of government and succession of power in which the throne passes from one member of a royal family to another member of the same family.

Elective monarchy

electiveelectedelected king
Examples are Henry the Young King and the heirs of elective monarchies, such as the use of the title King of the Romans for the Habsburg emperors.
Eventually, however, most elected monarchies introduced hereditary succession, guaranteeing that the title and office stayed within the royal family and specifying, more or less precisely, the order of succession.

House law

house lawsFamily Treatyrules
Constitutions, statutes, house laws, and norms may regulate the sequence and eligibility of potential successors to the throne.
House law or House laws (Hausgesetze) are rules that govern a royal family or dynasty in matters of eligibility for succession to a throne, membership in a dynasty, exercise of a regency, or entitlement to dynastic rank, titles and styles.

Succession planning

successionbusiness succession planningCareer & Succession Planning
Organizations without hereditary or statutory order of succession require succession planning if power struggles prompted by power vacuums are to be avoided.

Legitimacy (family law)

illegitimatebastardillegitimacy
Upon the death of the grantee, a designated inheritance such as a peerage, or a monarchy, passes automatically to that living, legitimate, non-adoptive relative of the grantee who is most senior in descent (i.e. highest in the line of succession, regardless of age); and thereafter continues to pass to subsequent successors of the grantee, according to the same rules, upon the death of each subsequent heir.
Legitimacy also continues to be relevant to hereditary titles, with only legitimate children being admitted to the line of succession.

Heir apparent

heir-apparentheirs apparentheir
The right of succession belongs to the eldest son of the reigning sovereign (see heir apparent), and next to the eldest son of the eldest son.
An heir apparent or heiress apparent is a person who is first in a line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person.

Proximity of blood

proximity in bloodblood relationshipclosest male relative
The Kingdom of Italy was designated a secundogeniture for the second surviving son of Napoleon I Bonaparte but, failing such, provided for the emperor's stepson, Eugène de Beauharnais, to succeed, even though the latter had no blood relationship to the House of Bonaparte.
Proximity of blood, or proximity by degree of kinship, is one of the ways to determine hereditary succession based on genealogy.

Royal family

royaltyroyalroyal families
Often, the line of succession is restricted to persons of the blood royal (but see morganatic marriage), that is, to those legally recognized as born into or descended from the reigning dynasty or a previous sovereign.
In a constitutional monarchy, when the monarch dies, there is always a law or tradition of succession to the throne that either specifies a formula for identifying the precise order of succession among family members in line to the throne or specifies a process by which a family member is chosen to inherit the crown.

Swedish Act of Succession

Act of Succession1810 Act of SuccessionAct of Succession of 1810
This is currently the system in Sweden (since 1980), the Netherlands (since 1983), Norway (since 1990), Belgium (since 1991), Denmark (since 2009),
The 1810 Act of Succession (1810 års successionsordning; in English literally The 1810 order of succession) is one of four Fundamental Laws of the Realm (rikets grundlagar) and thus forms part of the Swedish Constitution.

Power vacuum

power strugglevacuum of powerpolitical vacuum
Organizations without hereditary or statutory order of succession require succession planning if power struggles prompted by power vacuums are to be avoided.
Hereditary or statutory order of succession or effective succession planning are orderly ways to resolve questions of succession to positions of power.

Line of succession to the Belgian throne

Hereditaryin line to the Belgian thronein line to the throne
This is currently the system in Sweden (since 1980), the Netherlands (since 1983), Norway (since 1990), Belgium (since 1991), Denmark (since 2009),
There are sixteen persons in the line of succession to the Belgian throne.

Succession to the Norwegian throne

Line of succession to the Norwegian throneline of successionline to succeed
This is currently the system in Sweden (since 1980), the Netherlands (since 1983), Norway (since 1990), Belgium (since 1991), Denmark (since 2009),
The line of succession to the Norwegian throne consists of people entitled to become head of state of Norway.

Abeyance

abeyantin abeyanceco-heiress
This can result in the condition known as abeyance.
Most such peerages pass to heirs-male, but the ancient baronies created by writ, as well as some very old earldoms, pass instead to heirs-general (by cognatic primogeniture).

Head of state

heads of stateChief of Stateheads of states
An order of succession or right of succession is the sequence of those entitled to hold a high office such as head of state or an honor such as a title of nobility in the order in which they stand in line to it when it becomes vacated.
There have been cases of sovereignty granted by deliberate act, even when accompanied by orders of succession (as may be the case in a dynastic split).

Agnatic seniority

agnaticseniorityAgnatic succession
Generally, hereditary monarchies that operate under the Salic law also use primogeniture among male descendants in the male line to determine the rightful successor, although in earlier history agnatic seniority was more usual than primogeniture.
Agnatic seniority is a patrilineal principle of inheritance where the order of succession to the throne prefers the monarch's younger brother over the monarch's own sons.

Christian IX of Denmark

Christian IXKing Christian IXKing Christian IX of Denmark
Examples are Christian I of Denmark's succession to Schleswig-Holstein, Maria Theresa of Austria (although her right ultimately was confirmed in consequence of her victory in the War of the Austrian Succession launched over her accession), Marie-Adelaide and Charlotte of Luxembourg, Anne of Brittany, and Maria Vladimirovna, Grand Duchess of Russia, as well as Christian IX of Denmark's succession in the right of his wife, Louise of Hesse.
Frederick of Augustenburg (as he was commonly known) had become the symbol of the nationalist German independence movement in Schleswig-Holstein after his father (in exchange for money) renounced his claims as heir to the throne of the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein.

Tanistry

tanisttánaistetànaiste
In the partially elective system of tanistry, the heir or tanist was elected from the qualified males of the royal family.

United States presidential line of succession

presidential line of successionline of successionline of succession to the presidency
The United States presidential line of succession is the order in which officials of the United States federal government assume the powers and duties of the office of president of the United States if the incumbent president becomes incapacitated, dies, resigns, or is removed from office (via impeachment by the House of Representatives and subsequent conviction in a trial by the Senate).

Dynasty

dynasticroyal housedynasties
Often, the line of succession is restricted to persons of the blood royal (but see morganatic marriage), that is, to those legally recognized as born into or descended from the reigning dynasty or a previous sovereign.
This has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female.

List of monarchies by order of succession

]]This is a list of current monarchies by order of succession (primogeniture and elective).

Patrilineality

patrilinealagnaticPatrilineal descent
Agnatic (or semi-Salic) succession, prevalent in much of Europe since ancient times, is the restriction of succession to those descended from or related to a past or current monarch exclusively through the male line of descent: descendants through females were ineligible to inherit unless no males of the patrilineage remained alive.

Posthumous birth

posthumous sonposthumousposthumous child
Posthumous birth has special implications in law, potentially affecting the child's citizenship and legal rights, inheritance, and order of succession.