Oregon Country

Oregonearly non-native explorersEuropean settlementMontanaNorthwest TerritoriesOregon and Washington TerritoriesOregon Country (U.S.)pioneers
In the nineteenth century, the Oregon Country was a disputed region of the Pacific Northwest of North America.wikipedia
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Pacific Northwest

northwestNorthwest CoastPacific Northwest Coast
In the nineteenth century, the Oregon Country was a disputed region of the Pacific Northwest of North America.
Definitions based on the historic Oregon Country reach east to the Continental Divide, thus including all of Idaho and parts of western Montana and western Wyoming.

Oregon boundary dispute

Oregon QuestionOregon DisputeOregon Crisis
In the nineteenth century, the Oregon Country was a disputed region of the Pacific Northwest of North America.
The remaining portion of the North American Pacific coast contested by the United Kingdom and the United States was defined as the following: west of the Continental Divide of the Americas, north of Mexico's Alta California border of 42nd parallel north, and south of Russian America at parallel 54°40′ north; typically this region was referred to as the Columbia District by the British and the Oregon Country by the Americans.

Columbia River

ColumbiaColumbia basinLower Columbia
The region was occupied by British and French Canadian fur traders from before 1810, and American settlers from the mid-1830s, with its coastal areas north from the Columbia River frequented by ships from all nations engaged in the maritime fur trade, most of these from the 1790s through 1810s being Boston-based.
Overland explorers entered the Willamette Valley through the scenic but treacherous Columbia River Gorge, and pioneers began to settle the valley in increasing numbers.

Oregon Treaty

Oregon Treaty of 1846Treaty of WashingtonTreaty of Oregon
The Oregon Treaty of 1846 ended disputed joint occupancy pursuant to the Treaty of 1818 and established the British-American boundary at the 49th parallel (except Vancouver Island).
The Oregon Treaty is a treaty between the United Kingdom and the United States that was signed on June 15, 1846, in Washington, D.C. The treaty was signed under the presidency of James K. Polk, the treaty brought an end to the Oregon boundary dispute by settling competing American and British claims to the Oregon Country; the area had been jointly occupied by both Britain and the U.S. since the Treaty of 1818.

Oregon

ORState of OregonOregon, USA
The area now forms part of the present day Canadian province of British Columbia, all of the US states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, and parts of Montana and Wyoming.
An autonomous government was formed in the Oregon Country in 1843 before the Oregon Territory was created in 1848.

British North America

BritishNorth AmericaBritish North American
The region was occupied by British and French Canadian fur traders from before 1810, and American settlers from the mid-1830s, with its coastal areas north from the Columbia River frequented by ships from all nations engaged in the maritime fur trade, most of these from the 1790s through 1810s being Boston-based.
Then, in 1846, Britain and the United States split the Oregon Country.

Idaho

IDState of Idaho(ID)
The area now forms part of the present day Canadian province of British Columbia, all of the US states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, and parts of Montana and Wyoming.
In the early 19th century, Idaho was considered part of the Oregon Country, an area disputed between the U.S. and the United Kingdom.

New Caledonia (Canada)

New CaledoniaNew Caledonia DistrictNew Caledonia fur district
The British presence in the region was generally administered by the Hudson's Bay Company, whose Columbia Department comprised most of the Oregon Country and extended considerably north into New Caledonia and beyond 54°40′N, with operations reaching tributaries of the Yukon River.
The rest of what is now mainland British Columbia was called the Columbia Department by the British, and the Oregon Country by the Americans.

Meriwether Lewis

LewisMerriwether LewisMeriweather Lewis
From 1805 to 1806 Meriwether Lewis and William Clark explored the territory for the United States on the Lewis and Clark Expedition.
Their mission was to explore the territory of the Louisiana Purchase, establish trade with, and sovereignty over the natives near the Missouri River, and claim the Pacific Northwest and Oregon Country for the United States before European nations.

Washington (state)

WashingtonWashington StateWA
The area now forms part of the present day Canadian province of British Columbia, all of the US states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, and parts of Montana and Wyoming.
With American settlers pouring into Oregon Country, Hudson's Bay Company, which had previously discouraged settlement because it conflicted with the fur trade, reversed its position in an attempt to maintain British control of the Columbia District.

Montana

MTState of MontanaMontana, USA
The area now forms part of the present day Canadian province of British Columbia, all of the US states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, and parts of Montana and Wyoming.
Until the Oregon Treaty (1846), land west of the continental divide was disputed between the British and U.S. and was known as the Oregon Country.

Fort Astoria

Fort GeorgeAstoriaFort Astor
Later in 1811, on the same expedition, he finished his survey of the entire Columbia, arriving at a partially constructed Fort Astoria two months after the departure of John Jacob Astor's ill-fated Tonquin.
Competition for control of Fort Astoria was a factor in the British and the Americans' resolving their disputed claims to the Oregon Country.

Provisional Government of Oregon

provisional governmentOregon Provisional Governmentprovisional
In 1843 settlers established their own government, called the Provisional Government of Oregon.
The Provisional Government of Oregon was a popularly elected settler government created in the Oregon Country, in the Pacific Northwest region of North America.

John McLoughlin

Dr. John McLoughlinDr. McLoughlinDr. Jean-Baptiste/John McLoughlin
Chief Factor John McLoughlin, as HBC's manager in the Columbia District, applied the law to British subjects and sought to maintain law and order over American settlers, as well.
He was later known as the "Father of Oregon" for his role in assisting the American cause in the Oregon Country.

Treaty of 1818

Anglo-American Convention of 18181818London Convention
The Oregon Treaty of 1846 ended disputed joint occupancy pursuant to the Treaty of 1818 and established the British-American boundary at the 49th parallel (except Vancouver Island).
The treaty allowed for joint occupation and settlement of the Oregon Country, known to the British and in Canadian history as the Columbia District of the Hudson's Bay Company, and including the southern portion of its sister district New Caledonia.

Organic Laws of Oregon

Organic LawsFirst Organic LawsOrganic Act
A legislative committee drafted a code of laws known as the Organic Law.
These laws were drafted after the Champoeg Meetings and created the structure of a white government in the Oregon Country.

Fort Clatsop

Fort Clatsop National Memorial
In 1805, the American Lewis and Clark expedition marked the first official American exploration of the area, then creating the first temporary settlement of Euro-Americans in the area near the mouth of the Columbia River at Fort Clatsop.
Fort Clatsop was the encampment of the Lewis and Clark Expedition in the Oregon Country near the mouth of the Columbia River during the winter of 1805-1806.

49th parallel north

49th parallel49° N49° north
The Oregon Treaty of 1846 ended disputed joint occupancy pursuant to the Treaty of 1818 and established the British-American boundary at the 49th parallel (except Vancouver Island).
West of the Rockies, the treaty established joint occupation of the Oregon Country by both parties; east of Lake of the Woods, the boundary established in the Treaty of Paris would be retained.

Parallel 54°40′ north

54-4054°40'N54°40′ N latitude
The Oregon Country consisted of the land north of 42°N latitude, south of 54°40′N latitude, and west of the Rocky Mountains—with the eastern border generally running on or close to the Continental Divide—westwards to the Pacific Ocean.

Mexican–American War

Mexican-American WarMexican WarMexican American War
A faction of Oregon politicians hoped to continue Oregon's political evolution into an independent nation, but the pressure to join the United States would prevail by 1848, four months after the Mexican–American War.
To end another war scare with the United Kingdom over the Oregon Country, Polk signed the Oregon Treaty dividing the territory, angering northern Democrats who felt he was prioritizing Southern expansion over Northern expansion.

Astoria, Oregon

AstoriaAstoria, ORAstoria, Oreg.
This settlement later served as the nucleus of present day Astoria, Oregon.
The Pacific Fur Company, a subsidiary of John Jacob Astor's American Fur Company, was created to begin fur trading in the Oregon Country.

Puget Sound

Puget Sound, WashingtonPuget Sound Clean Air AgencyPuget
George Vancouver explored Puget Sound in 1792.
After 1818 Britain and the United States, which both claimed the Oregon Country, agreed to "joint occupancy", deferring resolution of the Oregon boundary dispute until the 1846 Oregon Treaty.

Jedediah Smith

Jedediah Strong SmithJedediah S. SmithSmith
Long after the Lewis and Clark Expedition and also after the consolidation of the fur trade in the region by the Canadian fur companies, American "Mountain Men" such as Jedediah Smith and Jim Beckwourth came roaming into and across the Rocky Mountains, following Indian trails through the Rockies to California and Oregon.
In the following year, Smith and his companions were the first U. S. explorers to travel north from California (on land) to reach the Oregon Country.

Mountain man

mountain mentrappersCanadian trapper
Long after the Lewis and Clark Expedition and also after the consolidation of the fur trade in the region by the Canadian fur companies, American "Mountain Men" such as Jedediah Smith and Jim Beckwourth came roaming into and across the Rocky Mountains, following Indian trails through the Rockies to California and Oregon.
They arose in a natural geographic and economic expansion driven by the lucrative earnings available in the North American fur trade, in the wake of the various 1806–07 published accounts of the Lewis and Clark expeditions' (1803–1806) findings about the Rockies and the (ownership-disputed between the United States and the British) Oregon Country where they flourished economically for over three decades.

Oregon missionaries

missionarymissionariesOregon missionary
Jason Lee, a Methodist minister from New York, was the first Oregon missionary.
The Oregon missionaries were pioneers who settled in the Oregon Country of North America starting in the 1830s dedicated to bringing Christianity to local Native Americans.