Origins of the American Civil War

American Civil WarCivil WarPrior to the outbreaksecessionSouthern rightsa series of conflictsabolitionistantislaverycause of the American Civil Warcause of the war
Historians debating the origins of the American Civil War focus on the reasons why seven Southern states declared their secession from the United States (the Union), why they united to form the Confederate States of America (simply known as the "Confederacy"), and why the North refused to let them go.wikipedia
402 Related Articles

American Civil War

Civil WarU.S. Civil WarUnited States Civil War
Historians debating the origins of the American Civil War focus on the reasons why seven Southern states declared their secession from the United States (the Union), why they united to form the Confederate States of America (simply known as the "Confederacy"), and why the North refused to let them go.
The Civil War began primarily as a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people.

United States

AmericanU.S.USA
Historians debating the origins of the American Civil War focus on the reasons why seven Southern states declared their secession from the United States (the Union), why they united to form the Confederate States of America (simply known as the "Confederacy"), and why the North refused to let them go.
Differences of opinion regarding the slavery of Africans and African Americans ultimately led to the American Civil War.

Slave states and free states

slave statefree stateslave states
His victory triggered declarations of secession by seven slave states of the Deep South, whose riverfront or coastal economies were all based on cotton cultivated using slave labor.
Slavery became a divisive issue; it was a major issue during the writing of the U.S. Constitution, and slavery was the primary cause of the American Civil War.

Mexican–American War

Mexican-American WarMexican WarMexican American War
The primary catalyst for secession was slavery, most immediately the political battle over the right of Southerners to bring slavery into western territory that had hitherto been free under the terms of the Missouri Compromise or while part of Mexico.
In the United States, increasingly divided by sectional rivalry, the war was a partisan issue and an essential element in the origins of the American Civil War.

Manifest destiny

Western expansionwestward expansionAmerican expansion
Other important factors were partisan politics, abolitionism, nullification vs secession, Southern and Northern nationalism, expansionism, economics, and modernization in the Antebellum period.
Expansionism was among the various issues that played a role in the coming of the war.

Slavery in the United States

slaveryslavesslave
While most historians agree that conflicts over slavery caused the war, they disagree sharply regarding which kinds of conflict—ideological, economic, political, or social—were most important.

Henry L. Benning

Henry BenningHenry Lewis BenningBenning
In a February 1861 speech to the Virginian secession convention, Georgian Henry L. Benning stated the reasoning behind Georgia's declaring secession from the Union:
In 1851 he was nominated for the U.S. Congress as a Southern rights Democrat, but was not elected.

1860 United States presidential election

1860 presidential election18601860 election
Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 presidential election without being on the ballot in ten Southern states.
The election of Lincoln served as the primary catalyst of the American Civil War.

Charles A. Beard

Charles Austin BeardCharles BeardBeard
However, Charles A. Beard in the 1920s made a highly influential argument to the effect that these differences caused the war (rather than slavery or constitutional debates).
Thus he emphasized the long-term conflict among industrialists in the Northeast, farmers in the Midwest, and planters in the South that he saw as the cause of the Civil War.

Uncle Tom's Cabin

Uncle Tom’s CabinTopsySimon Legree
Southern spokesmen greatly exaggerated the power of abolitionists, looking especially at the great popularity of Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852), the novel and play by Harriet Beecher Stowe (whom Abraham Lincoln reputedly called "the little woman that started this great war").

Free Soil Party

Free SoilFree SoilerFree Soilers
Thus, by the 1850s, Southern slaveholders and non-slaveholders alike felt increasingly encircled psychologically and politically in the national political arena because of the rise of free soilism and abolitionism in the Northern states.

Avery Craven

Avery O. CravenAvery Odelle Craven
Nevins pointed out that the North and the South were rapidly becoming two different peoples, a point made also by historian Avery Craven.
]The Organization of American Historians gives an annual award named after Professor Craven, "for the most original book on the coming of the Civil War, the Civil War years, or the Era of Reconstruction, with the exception of works of purely military history. The exception recognizes and reflects the Quaker convictions of Craven, President of the Organization of American Historians 1963-1964."

Harriet Beecher Stowe

Harriett Beecher StoweHarrietStowe
Southern spokesmen greatly exaggerated the power of abolitionists, looking especially at the great popularity of Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852), the novel and play by Harriet Beecher Stowe (whom Abraham Lincoln reputedly called "the little woman that started this great war").
* Origins of the American Civil War

Lost Cause of the Confederacy

Lost CauseThe Lost CauseMyth of the Lost Cause
Stampp said that Stephens became one of the most ardent defenders of the Lost Cause.
Though the idea has more than one origin, its proponents argue in the main that slavery was not the primary cause of the Civil War.

New England Emigrant Aid Company

Massachusetts Emigrant Aid CompanyNew England Emigrant Aid SocietyEmigrant Aid Company
Often they received financial help from such organizations as the Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company.
The Company was formed in the midst of the [[Origins of the American Civil War#Sectional tensions and the emergence of mass politics|sectional crisis]] that preceded the American Civil War.

Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War

the prelude to the American Civil WarAmerican Civil Warmajor events leading
This timeline of events leading to the American Civil War is a chronologically ordered list of events and issues which historians recognize as origins and causes of the American Civil War.

Crittenden Compromise

compromiseCrittenden AmendmentCrittenden's proposed compromise
The three major attempts at compromise, the Crittenden Compromise, the Corwin Amendment and the Washington Peace Conference, addressed only the slavery-related issues of fugitive slave laws, personal liberty laws, slavery in the territories and interference with slavery within the existing slave states.

Historiographic issues about the American Civil War

Issues of the American Civil War
Historiographic issues about the American Civil War include the name of the war, the origins or causes of the war (Slavery in the United States or states' rights), and President Abraham Lincoln's views and goals regarding slavery.

States' rights

states rightsstate's rightsstate sovereignty
The fourth in this quartet is the theory of state sovereignty ("states' rights"), also known as the "Calhoun doctrine" after the South Carolinian political theorist and statesman John C. Calhoun.

Missouri Compromise

Missouri Compromise of 1820Compromise of 1820Missouri Crisis
The primary catalyst for secession was slavery, most immediately the political battle over the right of Southerners to bring slavery into western territory that had hitherto been free under the terms of the Missouri Compromise or while part of Mexico.

Salmon P. Chase

Salmon ChaseChaseSalmon Portland Chase
Salmon P. Chase's "Appeal of the Independent Democrats" did much to arouse popular opinion.

Stephen A. Douglas

Stephen DouglasDouglasStephen Arnold Douglas
Of the two doctrines that rejected federal authority, one was articulated by northern Democrat of Illinois Senator Stephen A. Douglas, and the other by southern Democratic Senator Jefferson Davis of Mississippi and Senator John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky.

1856 United States presidential election

18561856 presidential election1856 election
"Where free schools are regarded as a nuisance, where religion is least honored and lazy unthrift is the rule," read an editorial of the pro-Republican Chicago Democratic Press after James Buchanan's defeat of John C. Fremont in the 1856 presidential election, "there Buchanan has received his strongest support."