Oromo language

OromiffaOromoAfaan OromoAfan OromoAfaan OromooormOromifaWest Central OromoAfaan Oromo languageOromiffaa
Oromo ( pron. or ) is an Afroasiatic dialect chain that can be identified as four major languages, Southern Oromo, which includes the Gabra and Sakuye varieties, Eastern Oromo, Orma, which includes the Munyo, Orma, Waata/Sanye varieties, and West Central Oromo.wikipedia
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Ethiopia

EthiopianAbyssiniaFederal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
With 33.8% Oromo speakers followed by 29.3% of Amharic speakers, Oromo is the most widely spoken language in Ethiopia. Forms of Oromo are spoken as a first language by more than 35 million Oromo people in Ethiopia and by an additional half-million in parts of northern and eastern Kenya.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ, ʾĪtyōṗṗyā,, Tigrinya: ኢትዮጵያ, Oromo: Itiyoophiyaa, Somali: Itoobiya, Afar: Itiyoophiyaa), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk, ), is a country in the northeastern part of Africa, known as the Horn of Africa.

Eastern Oromo language

Eastern Oromohae
or ) is an Afroasiatic dialect chain that can be identified as four major languages, Southern Oromo, which includes the Gabra and Sakuye varieties, Eastern Oromo, Orma, which includes the Munyo, Orma, Waata/Sanye varieties, and West Central Oromo.
Eastern Oromo is a dialect of the Oromo language.

Orma language

Ormaorc
or ) is an Afroasiatic dialect chain that can be identified as four major languages, Southern Oromo, which includes the Gabra and Sakuye varieties, Eastern Oromo, Orma, which includes the Munyo, Orma, Waata/Sanye varieties, and West Central Oromo.
Orma is a variety of Oromo language spoken by the Orma people in Kenya.

Oromo people

OromoOromosGalla
Forms of Oromo are spoken as a first language by more than 35 million Oromo people in Ethiopia and by an additional half-million in parts of northern and eastern Kenya.
Oromos speak the Oromo language as a mother tongue (also called Afaan Oromoo and Oromiffa), which is part of the Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family.

Harar

HarrarHarar JugolHarar Jugol, the Fortified Historic Town
Oromo serves as the official working language of Oromia, Harar, and Dire Dawa. It is a language of primary education in Oromia, Harar, Dire Dawa, Benishangul-Gumuz and Addis Ababa regions and of Oromia zone in Amhara region.
Harar (Harari: ሐረር ; Oromo : Adare Biyyo), and known to its inhabitants as Gēy (Harari: ጌይ), is a walled city in eastern Ethiopia.

Hausa language

HausaHausa-languagehau
It is also the most widely spoken language of the Cushitic languages and the fourth most widely spoken language of Africa after Arabic, Hausa, and Swahili.
Other Afroasiatic languages are Semitic languages including Arabic, Aramaic languages, Hebrew, extinct Phoenician and extinct Akkadian; Berber languages; Ethiopian languages including Amharic, Gurage, Tigre and Tigrinya; Cushtic languages including Somali and Oromo; other Chadic languages including Glavuda, Byabur, Mwaghavul, Terua, Tangiale, Karekare, Bole, Sayawa, Bwatiye, Ngas, Bade, Gwandara, Galambu, Pali, Higi, Ronn, Duhwa, Margi, Kilba, Duwai and many others.

Cushitic languages

CushiticCushitic languageEast Cushitic
It is also the most widely spoken language of the Cushitic languages and the fourth most widely spoken language of Africa after Arabic, Hausa, and Swahili.
The Cushitic languages with the greatest number of total speakers are Oromo (25 million), Somali (16.2 million), Beja (3.2 million), Sidamo (3 million), and Afar (2 million).

Dire Dawa

DiredawaDire DauaDire-Dawa
Oromo serves as the official working language of Oromia, Harar, and Dire Dawa. It is a language of primary education in Oromia, Harar, Dire Dawa, Benishangul-Gumuz and Addis Ababa regions and of Oromia zone in Amhara region.
Dire Dawa most probably derives from oromo Dire dhawa (a place of remedy) and popularly etymologizes in its Amharic form as "hill of uncultivated land".

Cushitic peoples

CushiticCushiteCushites
The hypernym of the term Oromo is Horner from a geopolitical sense, and Cushite from an ethnic sense.
The Somali language is the sole Cushitic language recognized as an official language while Oromo & Afar are recognized as a regional working languages in Ethiopia.

Onesimos Nesib

The few works that had been published, most notably Onesimos Nesib's and Aster Ganno's translation of the Bible from the late nineteenth century, were written in the Ge'ez alphabet.
Onesimos Nesib (Oromo: Onesimoos Nasiib; Amharic: ኦነሲሞስ ነሲብ; about 1856 – 21 June 1931) was a native Oromo who converted to Lutheran Christianity and translated the Christian Bible into the Oromo language.

Tigrinya language

TigrinyaTigrignatir
It is used as internet language for federal websites along Tigrinya.
Tigrinya is the most widely spoken language in Eritrea (see Demographics of Eritrea), and the fourth most spoken language in Ethiopia after Amharic, Somali and Oromo.

Oromo Liberation Front

OLFOromo Liberation ArmyOromo conflict
Plans to introduce Oromo language instruction in the schools, however, were not realized until the government of Mengistu Haile Mariam was overthrown in 1991, except in regions controlled by the Oromo Liberation Front (OLF).
The OLF has offices in Asmara (a military base), Washington, D.C. and Berlin from where it operates Amharic and Oromo-language radio stations.

Waata

ssnWaata language
In Kenya, the Borana and Waata also use Roman letters but with different systems.
The Waata (Waat, Watha), or Sanye, are an Oromo-speaking people of Kenya and former hunter-gatherers.

Bakri Sapalo

The Sapalo script was an indigenous Oromo script invented by Sheikh Bakri Sapalo (also known by his birth name, Abubaker Usman Odaa) in the years following Italian invasion of Ethiopia, and used underground afterwards.
He is best known as the inventor of a writing system for the Oromo language.

Voice of America

VOAVOA NewsVoice of America (VOA)
Voice of America also broadcasts in Oromo alongside its other horn of Africa programs.

Addis Ababa

Addis Ababa, EthiopiaAddis Abeba10 subcities
It is a language of primary education in Oromia, Harar, Dire Dawa, Benishangul-Gumuz and Addis Ababa regions and of Oromia zone in Amhara region.
Languages spoken as mother tongues include Amharic (71.0%), Afaan Oromo (10.7%), Gurage (8.37%), Tigrinya (3.60%), Silt'e (1.82%) and Gamo (1.03%).

Benishangul-Gumuz Region

Benishangul-GumuzBela ShangulBenishangul Gummuz
It is a language of primary education in Oromia, Harar, Dire Dawa, Benishangul-Gumuz and Addis Ababa regions and of Oromia zone in Amhara region.
Main languages are the Berta (25.15%), Amharic (22.46%), Gumuz (20.59%), Oromo (17.69%), Shinasha (4.58%) and Awngi (4.01%).

Oromia Zone

OromiaOromia zone in Amhara region
It is a language of primary education in Oromia, Harar, Dire Dawa, Benishangul-Gumuz and Addis Ababa regions and of Oromia zone in Amhara region.
The Oromia Zone was created in the late summer of 1994, according to one account in response to pressure from the Oromo Liberation Front, which was actively agitating for autonomy for Afaan Oromo-speaking populations during late 1991 and early 1992.

Oromia Region

OromiaOromiyaOromiya Region
Oromo serves as the official working language of Oromia, Harar, and Dire Dawa. It is a language of primary education in Oromia, Harar, Dire Dawa, Benishangul-Gumuz and Addis Ababa regions and of Oromia zone in Amhara region.
Oromo (Afaan Oromoo), which is written with Latin characters, is the most commonly spoken language, spoken by 83.5% of the population.

Borana Oromo people

BoranaBorana OromoBoran
In Kenya, the Borana and Waata also use Roman letters but with different systems.
They speak a dialect of the Oromo language that is clearly understood by other oromo's.

Aster Ganno

The few works that had been published, most notably Onesimos Nesib's and Aster Ganno's translation of the Bible from the late nineteenth century, were written in the Ge'ez alphabet.
Onesimos quickly “discovered that Aster was endowed with considerable mental gifts and possessed a real feeling for the Oromo language” (Arén 1978:383).

Horn of Africa

HornSomali peninsulanortheastern Africa
The hypernym of the term Oromo is Horner from a geopolitical sense, and Cushite from an ethnic sense. Oromo is spoken in the Horn of Africa.
The former includes Oromo, spoken by the Oromo people in Ethiopia, and Somali, spoken by the Somali people in Somalia, Djibouti and Ethiopia; the latter includes Amharic, spoken by the Amhara people of Ethiopia, and Tigrinya spoken by the Tigrayan people of Eritrea and Ethiopia.

Somalia

SomaliFederal Republic of SomaliaSOM
In addition, in Somalia there are also some speakers of the language.
It is a member of the Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family, and its nearest relatives are the Oromo, Afar and Saho languages.

Voiced retroflex implosive

retroflex implosive*implosive retroflex stop
Oromo has another glottalized phone that is more unusual, an implosive retroflex stop, "dh" in Oromo orthography, a sound that is like an English "d" produced with the tongue curled back slightly and with the air drawn in so that a glottal stop is heard before the following vowel begins.
Sindhi has an implosive that varies between dental and retroflex articulation, while Oromo and Saraiki have but not.

Johann Ludwig Krapf

Ludwig KrapfJohann KrapfDr Johann Ludwig Krapf
In 1842, Johann Ludwig Krapf began translations of the Gospels of John and Matthew into Oromo, as well as a first grammar and vocabulary.