Orphan

orphansorphanedwar orphanorphaned childrenwar orphansloss of parentsabandoned childrenChildren born to unknown parentschildren orphanedchildren who had lost their families
An orphan (from the ορφανός) is someone whose parents have died, are unknown, or have permanently abandoned them.wikipedia
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List of orphans and foundlings

Famous orphans
Famous orphans include world leaders such as Nelson Mandela, Alexander Hamilton, Aaron Burr, Andrew Jackson; the Hebrew prophet Moses and the Muslim prophet Muhammad; writers such as Edgar Allan Poe, and Leo Tolstoy; athletes such as Aaron Hernandez or Jacques Villeneuve.
Notable orphans and foundlings include world leaders, celebrated writers, entertainment greats, figures in science and business, as well as innumerable fictional characters in literature and comics.

Anne of Green Gables

Green Gablesnovel of the same nameof the same name
Examples from classic literature include Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre, Charles Dickens's Oliver Twist, Mark Twain's Tom Sawyer, L. M. Montgomery's Anne of Green Gables, Thomas Hardy's Jude the Obscure, and J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings.
Set in the late 19th century, the novel recounts the adventures of Anne Shirley, an 11-year-old orphan girl, who is mistakenly sent to two middle-aged siblings; Matthew and Marilla Cuthbert, originally intending to adopt a boy to help them on their farm in the fictional town of Avonlea on Prince Edward Island.

Child abandonment

foundlingabandoned childrenfoundlings
Child abandonment
An abandoned child is referred to as a foundling (as opposed to a runaway or an orphan).

AIDS orphan

abuse and exploitationAIDS orphanslost at least one parent
AIDS orphan
An AIDS orphan is a child who became an orphan because one or both parents died from AIDS.

Orphanage

orphanageschildren's homeOrphan Asylum
Orphanage
Historically, an orphanage was a residential institution, or group home, devoted to the care of orphans and other children who were separated from their biological families.

Student Initiative Rahel

Student Initiative Rahel, an educational project working for disadvantaged young people like AIDS orphans together with the OVC project for Adigrat and the Tigray region, Ethiopia
One of the sponsored students was the AIDS orphan Rahel Hailay.

Empower Orphans

Empower Orphans
Empower Orphans is a registered 501(c)(3) non-profit organization which intends to address the problems associated with orphans and abandoned children, and children born into homes living in poverty.

Euro-orphan

Euro-orphan
The expression itself is a misnomer, since it is meant to describe temporary child abandonment, rather than the death of both parents.

Orphans (Lyle Kessler play)

Orphans*''OrphansOrphan
One recurring storyline has been the relationship that the orphan can have with an adult from outside their immediate family as seen in Lyle Kessler's play Orphans.

Legitimacy (family law)

illegitimatebastardillegitimacy
Legitimacy (family law)
Orphan

United States

American🇺🇸U.S.
One legal definition used in the United States is a minor bereft through "death or disappearance of, abandonment or desertion by, or separation or loss from, both parents".

Minor (law)

minorminorsjuvenile
One legal definition used in the United States is a minor bereft through "death or disappearance of, abandonment or desertion by, or separation or loss from, both parents".

UNICEF

United Nations Children's FundUnited Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)United Nations Children’s Fund
However, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS), and other groups label any child who has lost one parent as an orphan.

Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS

UNAIDSJoint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDSJoint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
However, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS), and other groups label any child who has lost one parent as an orphan.

China

🇨🇳ChinesePeople's Republic of China
China: A survey conducted by the Ministry of Civil Affairs in 2005 showed that China has about 573,000 orphans below 18 years old.

Ministry of Civil Affairs

Minister of Civil AffairsVice Minister of Civil AffairsCivil Affairs Minister
China: A survey conducted by the Ministry of Civil Affairs in 2005 showed that China has about 573,000 orphans below 18 years old.

Russia

🇷🇺RUSRussian
Russia: According to Russian reports from 2002 cited in the New York Times, 650,000 children are housed in orphanages. They are released at age 16, and 40% become homeless, while 30% become criminals or commit suicide.

Street children in Latin America

Latin Americastreet children
Latin America: Street children have a major presence in Latin America; some estimate that there are as many as 40 million street children in Latin America. Although not all street children are orphans, all street children work and many do not have significant family support.

Nelson Mandela

MandelaNelsonPresident Mandela
Famous orphans include world leaders such as Nelson Mandela, Alexander Hamilton, Aaron Burr, Andrew Jackson; the Hebrew prophet Moses and the Muslim prophet Muhammad; writers such as Edgar Allan Poe, and Leo Tolstoy; athletes such as Aaron Hernandez or Jacques Villeneuve.

Alexander Hamilton

HamiltonHamiltonianA. Hamilton
Famous orphans include world leaders such as Nelson Mandela, Alexander Hamilton, Aaron Burr, Andrew Jackson; the Hebrew prophet Moses and the Muslim prophet Muhammad; writers such as Edgar Allan Poe, and Leo Tolstoy; athletes such as Aaron Hernandez or Jacques Villeneuve.

Aaron Burr

Aaron Burr, Jr.Burr, AaronAaron
Famous orphans include world leaders such as Nelson Mandela, Alexander Hamilton, Aaron Burr, Andrew Jackson; the Hebrew prophet Moses and the Muslim prophet Muhammad; writers such as Edgar Allan Poe, and Leo Tolstoy; athletes such as Aaron Hernandez or Jacques Villeneuve.

Andrew Jackson

JacksonJacksonianPresident Andrew Jackson
Famous orphans include world leaders such as Nelson Mandela, Alexander Hamilton, Aaron Burr, Andrew Jackson; the Hebrew prophet Moses and the Muslim prophet Muhammad; writers such as Edgar Allan Poe, and Leo Tolstoy; athletes such as Aaron Hernandez or Jacques Villeneuve.

Moses

MosaicMosheMusa
Famous orphans include world leaders such as Nelson Mandela, Alexander Hamilton, Aaron Burr, Andrew Jackson; the Hebrew prophet Moses and the Muslim prophet Muhammad; writers such as Edgar Allan Poe, and Leo Tolstoy; athletes such as Aaron Hernandez or Jacques Villeneuve.

Muhammad

Prophet MuhammadProphetMohammed
Famous orphans include world leaders such as Nelson Mandela, Alexander Hamilton, Aaron Burr, Andrew Jackson; the Hebrew prophet Moses and the Muslim prophet Muhammad; writers such as Edgar Allan Poe, and Leo Tolstoy; athletes such as Aaron Hernandez or Jacques Villeneuve.

Edgar Allan Poe

PoeEdgar PoeEdgar Allen Poe
Famous orphans include world leaders such as Nelson Mandela, Alexander Hamilton, Aaron Burr, Andrew Jackson; the Hebrew prophet Moses and the Muslim prophet Muhammad; writers such as Edgar Allan Poe, and Leo Tolstoy; athletes such as Aaron Hernandez or Jacques Villeneuve.