Orthodox Judaism

OrthodoxOrthodox JewishOrthodox JewsOrthodox JewJewish OrthodoxOrthodoxyreligiousJewishJewish orthodoxyOrthodox Jewish community
Orthodox Judaism is a collective term for the traditionalist branches of contemporary Judaism.wikipedia
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Judaism

JewishJewsJudaic
Orthodox Judaism is a collective term for the traditionalist branches of contemporary Judaism.
Today, the largest Jewish religious movements are Orthodox Judaism (Haredi Judaism and Modern Orthodox Judaism), Conservative Judaism, and Reform Judaism.

Revelation

divine revelationrevealedrevealed religion
Theologically, it is chiefly defined by regarding the Torah, both Written and Oral, as literally revealed by God on Mount Sinai and faithfully transmitted ever since.
For instance, Orthodox Jews, Christians and Muslims believe that the Torah was received from Yahweh on biblical Mount Sinai.

Modern Orthodox Judaism

Modern OrthodoxModern Orthodox JewishModern Orthodoxy
Very roughly, it may be divided between Haredi Judaism (ultra-Orthodox), which is more conservative and reclusive, and Modern Orthodox Judaism, which is relatively open to outer society.
Modern Orthodox Judaism (also Modern Orthodox or Modern Orthodoxy) is a movement within Orthodox Judaism that attempts to synthesize Jewish values and the observance of Jewish law with the secular, modern world.

Third Temple

TempleJewish Templerebuild the Temple
Other key doctrines include belief in a future bodily resurrection of the dead, divine reward and punishment for the righteous and the sinners, the Election of Israel as a people bound by a covenant with God, and an eventual Messianic Age ruled by a salvific Messiah-King who will restore the Temple in Jerusalem.
Although it remains unbuilt, the notion of and desire for a Third Temple is sacred in Judaism, particularly Orthodox Judaism, and anticipated as a place of worship.

Samson Raphael Hirsch

Rabbi Samson Raphael HirschSamson Rafael HirschHirsch
The Orthodox leader Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch referred to "the conviction commonly designated as Orthodox Judaism"; in 1882, when Rabbi Azriel Hildesheimer became convinced that the public understood that his philosophy and Liberal Judaism were radically different, he removed the word Orthodox from the name of his Hildesheimer Rabbinical Seminary.
Samson Raphael Hirsch (June 20, 1808 – December 31, 1888) was a German Orthodox rabbi best known as the intellectual founder of the Torah im Derech Eretz school of contemporary Orthodox Judaism.

Oral Torah

Oral LawOraloral tradition
Theologically, it is chiefly defined by regarding the Torah, both Written and Oral, as literally revealed by God on Mount Sinai and faithfully transmitted ever since.
Belief that at least portions of the Oral Torah were transmitted orally from God to Moses on Mount Sinai during the Exodus from Egypt is a fundamental tenet of faith of Orthodox Judaism, and was recognized as one of the Thirteen Principles of Faith by Maimonides.

Azriel Hildesheimer

Israel HildesheimerA. HildesheimerEsriel Hildesheimer
The Orthodox leader Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch referred to "the conviction commonly designated as Orthodox Judaism"; in 1882, when Rabbi Azriel Hildesheimer became convinced that the public understood that his philosophy and Liberal Judaism were radically different, he removed the word Orthodox from the name of his Hildesheimer Rabbinical Seminary.
Azriel Hildesheimer (also Esriel and Israel, עזריאל הילדעסהיימער; 11 May 1820 – 12 July 1899) was a German rabbi and leader of Orthodox Judaism.

Jews as the chosen people

chosen peopleElection of Israelchosenness
Other key doctrines include belief in a future bodily resurrection of the dead, divine reward and punishment for the righteous and the sinners, the Election of Israel as a people bound by a covenant with God, and an eventual Messianic Age ruled by a salvific Messiah-King who will restore the Temple in Jerusalem.
The three largest Jewish denominations—Orthodox Judaism, Conservative Judaism and Reform Judaism—maintain the belief that the Jews have been chosen by God for a purpose.

Hildesheimer Rabbinical Seminary

Rabbinical SeminaryHildesheimer Theological SeminaryNeo-Orthodox Theological Rabbinical Seminary
The Orthodox leader Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch referred to "the conviction commonly designated as Orthodox Judaism"; in 1882, when Rabbi Azriel Hildesheimer became convinced that the public understood that his philosophy and Liberal Judaism were radically different, he removed the word Orthodox from the name of his Hildesheimer Rabbinical Seminary.
The Hildesheimer Rabbinical Seminary (officially in Rabbinerseminar für das orthodoxe Judenthum in Berlin until 1880, thereafter Rabbiner-Seminar zu Berlin; in בית המדרש לרבנים בברלין, Bet ha-midrash le-Rabanim be-Berlin) was founded in Berlin on 22 October 1873 by Rabbi Dr. Israel Hildesheimer for the training of rabbis in the tradition of Orthodox Judaism.

Messiah in Judaism

Jewish MessiahMessiahJewish messianism
Other key doctrines include belief in a future bodily resurrection of the dead, divine reward and punishment for the righteous and the sinners, the Election of Israel as a people bound by a covenant with God, and an eventual Messianic Age ruled by a salvific Messiah-King who will restore the Temple in Jerusalem.
Orthodox views hold that the Messiah will be descended from his father through the line of King David, and will gather the Jews back into the Land of Israel, usher in an era of peace, build the Third Temple, father a male heir, re-institute the Sanhedrin, and so on.

Jewish principles of faith

Thirteen Principles of Faith13 principles of faithColumbus Platform
Yet the 13 principles expounded by Maimonides in his Commentary on the Mishna, authored in the 1160s, eventually proved the most widely accepted.
Orthodox Judaism stresses a number of core principles in its educational programs, most importantly a belief that there is one single, omniscient, transcendent, non-compound God, who created the universe, and continues to be concerned with its governance.

Joseph B. Soloveitchik

Joseph SoloveitchikRabbi Joseph B. SoloveitchikJoseph Ber Soloveitchik
Notable examples are the Hegelian-Kabbalistic theology of Abraham Isaac Kook, who viewed history as progressing toward a messianic redemption in a dialectic fashion which required the strengthening of heretical forces, or the existentialist thought of Joseph B. Soloveitchik, who was deeply influenced by Neo-Kantian ideals.
Joseph Ber Soloveitchik ( Yosef Dov ha-Levi Soloveychik; February 27, 1903 – April 9, 1993) was a major American Orthodox rabbi, Talmudist, and modern Jewish philosopher.

Halakha

Jewish lawhalakhicHalacha
Orthodox Judaism therefore advocates a strict observance of Jewish Law, or halakha, which is to be interpreted and determined only according to traditional methods and in adherence to the continuum of received precedent through the ages.
For example, many Orthodox rulings concerning electricity are derived from rulings concerning fire, as closing an electrical circuit may cause a spark.

Abraham Isaac Kook

Rav KookAvraham Yitzchak KookRabbi Abraham Isaac Kook
Notable examples are the Hegelian-Kabbalistic theology of Abraham Isaac Kook, who viewed history as progressing toward a messianic redemption in a dialectic fashion which required the strengthening of heretical forces, or the existentialist thought of Joseph B. Soloveitchik, who was deeply influenced by Neo-Kantian ideals.
Abraham Isaac Kook ( HaRav Avraham Yitzchak HaCohen Kook, also known by the acronym (HaRaAYaH); 7 September 1865 – 1 September 1935) was an Orthodox rabbi, the first Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi of British Mandatory Palestine in the Land of Israel, the founder of Yeshiva Mercaz HaRav (The Central Universal Yeshiva), a Jewish thinker, Posek, Kabbalist, and a renowned Talmid Chacham.

Yeshayahu Leibowitz

LeibowitzProfessor Yeshayahu Leibowitz
These, like the apopathic views of Yeshayahu Leibowitz or the feminist interpretation of Tamar Ross, had little to no influence on the mainstream.
Yeshayahu Leibowitz (29 January 1903 – 18 August 1994) was an Israeli Orthodox Jewish public intellectual and polymath.

Posek

poskimauthoritydecisors
Orthodox Judaism therefore advocates a strict observance of Jewish Law, or halakha, which is to be interpreted and determined only according to traditional methods and in adherence to the continuum of received precedent through the ages. These may be either popular chairs of talmudic academies, renowned decisors and, in the Hasidic world, hereditary rebbes.

Reform Judaism

ReformReform JewishReform Jews
The Orthodox leader Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch referred to "the conviction commonly designated as Orthodox Judaism"; in 1882, when Rabbi Azriel Hildesheimer became convinced that the public understood that his philosophy and Liberal Judaism were radically different, he removed the word Orthodox from the name of his Hildesheimer Rabbinical Seminary. During the early and mid-19th century, with the advent of the progressive movements among German Jews and especially early Reform Judaism, the title Orthodox became the epithet of the traditionalists who espoused conservative positions on the issues raised by modernization.
Its policy on conversion and Jewish status led the WUPJ into conflict with more traditional circles, and a growing number of its adherents are not accepted as Jewish by either the Conservative or the Orthodox.

Shema Yisrael

ShemaBedtime ShemaV'ahavta
This basis is evoked in many foundational texts, and is repeated often in the daily prayers, such as in Judaism's creed-like Shema Yisrael: "Hear, O Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One."
In Orthodox Judaism, women are not required to daily recite the Shema (as a command from the Torah), as with other time-bound requirements which might impinge on their traditional familial obligations, although they are obligated to pray at least once daily without a specific liturgy requirement, and many fulfill that obligation through prayers like the Shema.

Maimonides

RambamMoses MaimonidesMaimonidean
Yet the 13 principles expounded by Maimonides in his Commentary on the Mishna, authored in the 1160s, eventually proved the most widely accepted.
However, these principles have become widely held and are considered to be the cardinal principals of faith for Orthodox Jews.

Kitniyot

rice or beansconsume legumeskitniot
Ashkenazim, Sephardim, Teimanim, and others have different prayer rites, somewhat different kosher emphases (since the 12th century at least, it is Ashkenazi custom not to consume legumes in Passover), and numerous other points of distinction.
According to Orthodox Ashkenazi and some Sephardic customs, kitniyot may not be eaten during Passover.

Central Rabbinical Congress

Central Rabbinical Congress of the United States and CanadaHisachdus Harabonim
Bodies such as the Council of Torah Sages, Council of Torah Luminaries, the Central Rabbinical Congress, and the Orthodox Council of Jerusalem are all considered, at least in theory, as the supreme arbiters in their respective communities.
The Central Rabbinical Congress (in full: Central Rabbinical Congress of the US and Canada, commonly abbreviated to CRC; התאחדות הרבנים דארצות הברית וקנדא) is a rabbinical organization that is a consortium of various Orthodox Jewish groups, with offices currently in Brooklyn, New York.

Yisrael Meir Kagan

Chofetz ChaimIsrael Meir KaganChafetz Chaim
At a time when excessive contemplation in matters of belief was associated with secularization, luminaries such as Yisrael Meir Kagan stressed the importance of simple, unsophisticated commitment to the precepts passed down from the Beatified Sages.
He became one of the most influential rabbis within Orthodox Judaism during the late 19th and early 20th century, taking a central leadership role in the World Agudath Israel movement in Eastern Europe.

Rosh yeshiva

roshei yeshivarosh yeshivahRosh HaYeshiva
These may be either popular chairs of talmudic academies, renowned decisors and, in the Hasidic world, hereditary rebbes.
In addition, since yeshivas play a central role in the life of certain communities within Orthodox Judaism, the position of rosh yeshiva is more than just his position within the yeshiva.

List of Orthodox Jewish communities in the United States

New JerseyOrthodox Judaism in the United States of Americasecond largest Orthodox concentration is in the United States
The second largest Orthodox concentration is in the United States, mainly in the Northeast and specifically in New York and New Jersey.
Several communities in the United States have large Orthodox Jewish populations:

Religious denomination

denominationdenominationaldenominations
It is not a "denomination" in the structural sense, but a variegated spectrum of groups, united in broadly affirming several matters of belief and practice, which also share a consciousness and a common discourse.
It is also used to describe the four major branches of Judaism (Orthodox, Conservative, Reform, and Reconstructionist).