A report on Orthostatic hypotension

Tetrahydrocannabinol

Medical condition wherein a person's blood pressure drops when standing up or sitting down.

- Orthostatic hypotension
Tetrahydrocannabinol

22 related topics with Alpha

Overall

The autonomic nervous system

Dysautonomia

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Condition in which the autonomic nervous system does not work properly.

Condition in which the autonomic nervous system does not work properly.

The autonomic nervous system
Vincristine
Valsalva maneuver
The H2 receptor antagonist, Cimetidine

Orthostatic hypotension

Fludrocortisone

2 links

Fludrocortisone, sold under the brand name Florinef, among others, is a corticosteroid used to treat adrenogenital syndrome, postural hypotension, and adrenal insufficiency.

Illustration of Parkinson's disease by William Richard Gowers, first published in A Manual of Diseases of the Nervous System (1886)

Parkinson's disease

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Long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.

Long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.

Illustration of Parkinson's disease by William Richard Gowers, first published in A Manual of Diseases of the Nervous System (1886)
A man with PD displaying a flexed walking posture pictured in 1892
Handwriting of a person affected by PD
Parkin crystal structure
A Lewy body (stained brown) in a brain cell of the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease: The brown colour is positive immunohistochemistry staining for alpha-synuclein.
An illustration of the dopamine pathways throughout the brain.
"Hot Cross Bun" sign that is commonly found in MRI of Multiple System Atrophy.
Pharmacological treatment of Parkinson's disease
COMT metabolizes levodopa to 3-O-methyldopa. COMT inhibitors help stop this reaction, allowing for more levodopa to cross the blood-brain barrier and become dopamine where it is needed.
Placement of an electrode into the brain: The head is stabilised in a frame for stereotactic surgery.
Deaths from PD per million persons in 2012
Jean-Martin Charcot, who made important contributions to the understanding of the disease and proposed its current name honoring James Parkinson
"Parkinson's awareness" logo with red tulip symbol
Muhammad Ali at the World Economic Forum in Davos, at the age of 64. He had shown signs of parkinsonism from the age of 38 until his death.

Alterations in the autonomic nervous system can lead to orthostatic hypotension (low blood pressure upon standing), oily skin, excessive sweating, urinary incontinence, and altered sexual function.

Normal remnant adrenal gland (left) with a pheochromocytoma (right) involving the adrenal medulla

Pheochromocytoma

2 links

Rare tumor of the adrenal medulla composed of chromaffin cells, also known as pheochromocytes.

Rare tumor of the adrenal medulla composed of chromaffin cells, also known as pheochromocytes.

Normal remnant adrenal gland (left) with a pheochromocytoma (right) involving the adrenal medulla
Adrenal gland; the medulla (center, red) is the origin of the adrenal gland
There are two adrenal glands, highlighted in yellow, on top of each of the kidneys
Structure of epinephrine
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FDG PET – the tumor is appreciated as the dark structure in the patient's left chest. Darkened structures at head of patient is brain, in the abdomen are the kidneys, in the pelvis is the bladder. These are normal.
Histopathology on the resected tumor confirms the diagnosis, by typical features as shown.
Patient receiving radiation therapy to the region of the head and neck. Full facial mold is in-place to protect areas where they do not want exposure
Top: Purple lesions are metastatic disease detected with DOTATATE imaging. Bottom: Same patient. Purple lesions are metastatic disease detected with FDG PET
Likelihood of diagnosis when an adrenal-nodule is identified; pheochromocytoma is in yellow near the top-right corner
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The Zebra has become a powerful symbol in the pheochromocytoma advocacy community and represents the rare medical cases that are more likely to be misdiagnosed

Orthostatic Hypotension

A 1744 oil painting by Pietro Longhi called Fainting

Syncope (medicine)

1 links

Loss of consciousness and muscle strength characterized by a fast onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery.

Loss of consciousness and muscle strength characterized by a fast onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery.

A 1744 oil painting by Pietro Longhi called Fainting
Syncope from bradycardia
ECG showing HOCM
Long QT syndrome
A short PR in Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome
Type 2 Brugada ECG pattern

There are three broad categories of causes: heart or blood vessel related; reflex, also known as neurally mediated; and orthostatic hypotension.

Acrocyanosis in a male Norwegian POTS patient.

Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome

3 links

Condition characterized by an abnormally large increase in heart rate upon standing.

Condition characterized by an abnormally large increase in heart rate upon standing.

Acrocyanosis in a male Norwegian POTS patient.
Person standing and measuring heart rate with a pulse oximeter which shows tachycardia of 108 bpm

Other conditions which can cause similar symptoms, such as dehydration, orthostatic hypotension, heart problems, adrenal insufficiency, epilepsy, and Parkinson's disease, must not be present.

Alpha-synuclein immunohistochemistry of the brain showing many glial inclusion bodies

Multiple system atrophy

2 links

Rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by autonomic dysfunction, tremors, slow movement, muscle rigidity, and postural instability (collectively known as parkinsonism) and ataxia.

Rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by autonomic dysfunction, tremors, slow movement, muscle rigidity, and postural instability (collectively known as parkinsonism) and ataxia.

Alpha-synuclein immunohistochemistry of the brain showing many glial inclusion bodies

Many people affected by MSA experience dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, which commonly manifests as orthostatic hypotension, impotence, loss of sweating, dry mouth and urinary retention and incontinence.

Acute confusional state caused by alcohol withdrawal, also known as delirium tremens

Delirium

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Organically caused decline from a previous baseline of mental function that develops over a short period of time, typically hours to days.

Organically caused decline from a previous baseline of mental function that develops over a short period of time, typically hours to days.

Acute confusional state caused by alcohol withdrawal, also known as delirium tremens

Severe drop in blood pressure, relative to the patient's normal blood pressure (orthostatic hypotension) resulting in inadequate blood flow to the brain (cerebral hypoperfusion)

Autonomic Nervous System

Autonomic neuropathy

1 links

Form of polyneuropathy that affects the non-voluntary, non-sensory nervous system (i.e., the autonomic nervous system), affecting mostly the internal organs such as the bladder muscles, the cardiovascular system, the digestive tract, and the genital organs.

Form of polyneuropathy that affects the non-voluntary, non-sensory nervous system (i.e., the autonomic nervous system), affecting mostly the internal organs such as the bladder muscles, the cardiovascular system, the digestive tract, and the genital organs.

Autonomic Nervous System

Cardiovascular system: disturbances of heart rate (tachycardia, bradycardia), orthostatic hypotension, inadequate increase of heart rate on exertion

Desglymidodrine—a major metabolite

Midodrine

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Vasopressor/antihypotensive agent .

Vasopressor/antihypotensive agent .

Desglymidodrine—a major metabolite
Synthesis of midorine See also:

Midodrine was approved in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1996 for the treatment of dysautonomia and orthostatic hypotension.