Osmium

Osos'''miumosmiophilicosmium steelPtene
Osmium (from Greek ὀσμή osme, "smell") is a chemical element with the symbol Os and atomic number 76.wikipedia
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Iridium

IrIr-192Ir(III)
Manufacturers use its alloys with platinum, iridium, and other platinum-group metals to make fountain pen nib tipping, electrical contacts, and in other applications that require extreme durability and hardness. Osmium has a blue-gray tint and is the densest stable element; it is approximately twice as dense as lead and slightly denser than iridium. The +8 oxidation state is notable for being the highest attained by any chemical element aside from iridium's +9 and is encountered only in xenon, ruthenium, hassium, and iridium.
A very hard, brittle, silvery-white transition metal of the platinum group, iridium is the second-densest metal (after osmium) with a density of 22.56 g/cm3 as defined by experimental X-ray crystallography.

Density

densemass densitydensities
Osmium is the densest naturally occurring element, with an experimentally measured (using x-ray crystallography) density of 22.59 g/cm3.
Osmium and iridium are the densest known elements at standard conditions for temperature and pressure but certain chemical compounds may be denser.

Platinum group

platinum group metalsplatinum group metalPlatinum-group element
It is a hard, brittle, bluish-white transition metal in the platinum group that is found as a trace element in alloys, mostly in platinum ores.
The six platinum-group metals are ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, osmium, iridium, and platinum.

Metal

metalsmetal ionsmetal ion
Osmium is a hard but brittle metal that remains lustrous even at high temperatures.
Although most elemental metals have higher densities than most nonmetals, there is a wide variation in their densities, lithium being the least dense (0.534 g/cm 3 ) and osmium (22.59 g/cm 3 ) the most dense.

Osmium tetroxide

OsO 4 Osmic acidOsmium tetraoxide
The most common compound exhibiting the +8 oxidation state is osmium tetroxide.
The compound is noteworthy for its many uses, despite its toxicity and the rarity of osmium.

Lead

Pblead orelead mining
Osmium has a blue-gray tint and is the densest stable element; it is approximately twice as dense as lead and slightly denser than iridium.
Some rarer metals are denser: tungsten and gold are both at 19.3 g/cm 3, and osmium—the densest metal known—has a density of 22.59 g/cm 3, almost twice that of lead.

List of elements by stability of isotopes

stable elementat least one stable isotopecertain elements
Osmium has a blue-gray tint and is the densest stable element; it is approximately twice as dense as lead and slightly denser than iridium.

Hassium

Hs108element 108
The +8 oxidation state is notable for being the highest attained by any chemical element aside from iridium's +9 and is encountered only in xenon, ruthenium, hassium, and iridium.
Chemistry experiments have confirmed that hassium behaves as the heavier homologue to osmium, in group 8, reacting readily with oxygen to form a volatile tetroxide.

Ruthenium

RuRu(NH 3 ) 6 3+ ruthenate
The +8 oxidation state is notable for being the highest attained by any chemical element aside from iridium's +9 and is encountered only in xenon, ruthenium, hassium, and iridium.
Osmium, ruthenium, rhodium, and iridium are insoluble in aqua regia and readily precipitate, leaving the other metals in solution.

Transition metal

transition metalstransition elementtransition-metal
It is a hard, brittle, bluish-white transition metal in the platinum group that is found as a trace element in alloys, mostly in platinum ores.

Osmium hexafluoride

OsF 6 osmium(VI) fluoride
Osmium hexafluoride, also osmium(VI) fluoride, (OsF 6 ) is a compound of osmium and fluorine, and one of the seventeen known binary hexafluorides.

Symbol (chemistry)

symbolchemical symbolchemical symbols
Osmium (from Greek ὀσμή osme, "smell") is a chemical element with the symbol Os and atomic number 76.

Rhenium

ReNipponiumRe 2
Because of its hardness, brittleness, low vapor pressure (the lowest of the platinum-group metals), and very high melting point (the fourth highest of all elements, after only carbon, tungsten, and rhenium), solid osmium is difficult to machine, form, or work.
It is also one of the densest, exceeded only by platinum, iridium and osmium.

Fountain pen

fountain pensfountainfountain-pen
Manufacturers use its alloys with platinum, iridium, and other platinum-group metals to make fountain pen nib tipping, electrical contacts, and in other applications that require extreme durability and hardness.
Following the discovery of the platinum group of metals which include ruthenium, osmium, and iridium, "a small quantity of iridium was isolated and used on the iridium-tipped gold dip pen nibs of the 1830s."

Osmium(IV) chloride

Osmium(IV) chloride or osmium tetrachloride is the inorganic compound composed of osmium and chlorine with the empirical formula OsCl 4.

Platinum

Ptcompounds of platinumdouble Platinum
It is a hard, brittle, bluish-white transition metal in the platinum group that is found as a trace element in alloys, mostly in platinum ores.
Their assumptions could not be avoided because the platinum they experimented with was highly contaminated with minute amounts of platinum-family elements such as osmium and iridium, amongst others, which embrittled the platinum alloy.

Rhenium–osmium dating

rhenium-osmium dating 187 Re/ 187 Os methodRe-Os
is the descendant of (half-life 4.56 years) and is used extensively in dating terrestrial as well as meteoric rocks (see rhenium-osmium dating).
Rhenium-Osmium dating is a form of radiometric dating based on the beta decay of the isotope 187 Re to 187 Os.

Smithson Tennant

S. TennantTennant, Smithson
Osmium was discovered in 1803 by Smithson Tennant and William Hyde Wollaston in London, England.
Tennant is best known for his discovery of the elements iridium and osmium, which he found in the residues from the solution of platinum ores in 1803.

Nib (pen)

nibnibspen nib
Manufacturers use its alloys with platinum, iridium, and other platinum-group metals to make fountain pen nib tipping, electrical contacts, and in other applications that require extreme durability and hardness.
Following the discovery of the platinum group of metals which include ruthenium, osmium and iridium, "a small quantity of iridium was isolated and used on the iridium-tipped gold dip pen nibs of the 1830s".

Osmium dioxide

osmium(IV) oxideOsO 2
By contrast, osmium dioxide (OsO 2 ) is black, non-volatile, and much less reactive and toxic.
OsO 2 can be obtained by the reaction of osmium with a variety of oxidizing agents, including, sodium chlorate, osmium tetroxide, and nitric oxide at about 600 °C.

List of chemical elements

List of elements by melting pointList of elements by nameList of elements by atomic number
Because of its hardness, brittleness, low vapor pressure (the lowest of the platinum-group metals), and very high melting point (the fourth highest of all elements, after only carbon, tungsten, and rhenium), solid osmium is difficult to machine, form, or work.

Osmiridium

iridosmium
Osmium is found in nature as an uncombined element or in natural alloys; especially the iridium–osmium alloys, osmiridium (osmium rich), and iridosmium (iridium rich).
Osmiridium and iridosmine are natural alloys of the elements osmium and iridium, with traces of other platinum-group metals.

Abundance of elements in Earth's crust

Earth's crustmost abundant element in the Earth's crustat relatively trace concentrations of parts per million each
It is a hard, brittle, bluish-white transition metal in the platinum group that is found as a trace element in alloys, mostly in platinum ores.

Haber process

Haber-Bosch processHaber–Bosch processHaber-Bosch
Uranium and osmium were early successful catalysts in the Haber process, the nitrogen fixation reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen to produce ammonia, giving enough yield to make the process economically successful.
The original Haber–Bosch reaction chambers used osmium as the catalyst, but it was available in extremely small quantities.

Bushveld Igneous Complex

Bushveld complexBushveld
The largest known primary reserves are in the Bushveld Igneous Complex in South Africa, though the large copper–nickel deposits near Norilsk in Russia, and the Sudbury Basin in Canada are also significant sources of osmium.
The complex contains the world's largest reserves of platinum-group metals (PGMs) or platinum group elements (PGEs)—platinum, palladium, osmium, iridium, rhodium, and ruthenium along with vast quantities of iron, tin, chromium, titanium and vanadium.