Osmunda regalis

royal fernflowering fernroyal fern (''Osmunda regalis'')royal ferns
Osmunda regalis, or royal fern, is a species of deciduous fern, native to Europe, Africa and Asia, growing in woodland bogs and on the banks of streams.wikipedia
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Osmunda spectabilis

royal fernO. spectabilisflowering fern
The name has been qualified as "old world royal fern" in some American literature to distinguish it from the closely related American royal fern, O. spectabilis. There are three very similar species, Osmunda spectabilis, Osmunda lancea and Osmunda japonica.
Osmunda spectabilis or (American) royal fern is a species of fern doubtfully different from Osmunda regalis.

Fern

PolypodiopsidafernsPolypodiophyta
Osmunda regalis, or royal fern, is a species of deciduous fern, native to Europe, Africa and Asia, growing in woodland bogs and on the banks of streams.

Osmunda japonica

zenmaiAsian royal fernJapanese Royal Fern
There are three very similar species, Osmunda spectabilis, Osmunda lancea and Osmunda japonica.
The sterile (vegetative) fronds resemble in form, another relative, Osmunda regalis (Royal fern).

Fiddlehead fern

fiddleheadfiddleheadsFiddlehead ferns
The young shoots of the fern are, along with the similar shoots of many other fern species, known in some places as fiddleheads, and eaten as food, thought to have an asparagus-like taste.

Species

specificspecific epithetspecific name
Osmunda regalis, or royal fern, is a species of deciduous fern, native to Europe, Africa and Asia, growing in woodland bogs and on the banks of streams.

Deciduous

deciduous forestdeciduous treedeciduous forests
Osmunda regalis, or royal fern, is a species of deciduous fern, native to Europe, Africa and Asia, growing in woodland bogs and on the banks of streams.

Native plant

nativenative plantsindigenous
Osmunda regalis, or royal fern, is a species of deciduous fern, native to Europe, Africa and Asia, growing in woodland bogs and on the banks of streams.

Bog

peat bogbogspeat bogs
Osmunda regalis, or royal fern, is a species of deciduous fern, native to Europe, Africa and Asia, growing in woodland bogs and on the banks of streams.

Frond

frondspinnapinnae
Osmunda regalis produces separate fertile and sterile fronds.

Pinnation

pinnatetripinnatepinnae
The sterile fronds are spreading, 60 - 160 cm tall and 30 - 40 cm broad, bipinnate, with 7-9 pairs of pinnae up to 30 cm long, each pinna with 7-13 pairs of pinnules 2.5-6.5 cm long and 1–2 cm broad.

Sporangium

sporangiamegasporangiumsporangiospore
The fertile fronds are erect and shorter, 20–50 cm tall, usually with 2-3 pairs of sterile pinnae at the base, and 7-14 pairs of fertile pinnae above bearing the densely clustered sporangia.

Gondwana

GondwanalandGondwanansouthern continents
Osmunda evolved in the ancient southern continent of Gondwana.

Permineralization

permineralizedpyritizationpyritized
A permineralized fossil rhizome of fern was discovered in Early Jurassic (Pliensbachian) lahar deposits at Korsaröd in southern Sweden.

Pliensbachian

lower Pliensbachianupper PliensbachianDomerian
A permineralized fossil rhizome of fern was discovered in Early Jurassic (Pliensbachian) lahar deposits at Korsaröd in southern Sweden.

Cytoplasm

cytoplasmiccytosolicintracytoplasmic
Authigenic mineral precipitation from hydrothermal brines occurred so rapidly that it preserved cytoplasm, cytosol granules, nuclei, and even chromosomes in various stages of cell division.

Ploidy

diploidhaploid2n
The Korsaröd fern fossil and extant Osmundaceae share the same relative genome sizes and ploidy levels.

Osmunda lancea

O. lancea
There are three very similar species, Osmunda spectabilis, Osmunda lancea and Osmunda japonica.

Carl Ludwig Willdenow

Willd.WilldenowCarl Ludwig von Willdenow
spectabilis should be regarded as a separate species, Osmunda spectabilis'' Willdenow.

Robert Kaye Greville

Grev.GrevilleRobert Greville
brasiliensis Hooker & Greville.

Temperate climate

temperatetemperate zonetemperate zones
Osmunda regalis is widely cultivated in temperate regions.

Royal Horticultural Society

RHSThe Royal Horticultural SocietyHorticultural Society of London
The species and the cultivar 'Cristata' have both gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.

Award of Garden Merit

AGMAward of MeritRHS AGM
The species and the cultivar 'Cristata' have both gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.

Soil pH

acidic soilpHacidic
Osmunda plants should be planted in highly acidic, moist soil, associating well with other large moisture-loving plants such as Rodgersia and Gunnera.