Ospedale degli Innocenti

Ospedale degli Innocenti, Florence.

Historic building in Florence, Italy.

- Ospedale degli Innocenti

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Filippo Brunelleschi

Italian architect, designer, and sculptor, and is now recognized to be the first modern engineer, planner, and sole construction supervisor.

Filippo Brunelleschi in an anonymous portrait of the 2nd half of the 15th century (Louvre, Paris)
The Santa Maria del Fiore cathedral in Florence possesses the largest brick dome in the world, and is considered a masterpiece of European architecture.
Brunelleschi's original design of the Foundling Hospital. Digital reconstruction by Adriano Marinazzo.
Brunelleschi designed the Rocca di Vicopisano
Brunelleschi's tomb
St. John the Evangelist, Altar of Saint at Church of San Zeno, Pistoia (1399–1400)
Prophet Jeremiah detail of altarpiece, Church of San Zeno, Pistoia (1399–1400)
The Prophet Isaiah, Church of San Zeno, Pistoia detail of altarpiece (1399–1400)
The Sacrifice of Isaac, Brunelleschi's competition project for a door panel of the Baptistry of Florence (1401)
Cloister of Men of the Foundling Hospital (1419–1445)
Arcade of the Foundling Hospital (1419–1445)
Corinthian column in the cloister
Nave of the Basilica of San Lorenzo (1425–1442)
View of the Old Sacristy
Vault of the Old Sacristy (Sagrestia vecchia), with the tomb of Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici
Doorway inside the Old Sacristy with a classical pediment and columns, framed by pilasters
Sky of Florence decoration by Giuliano d'Arrigo on the small dome in the Old Sacristy (1442)
Central nave of Santo Spirito
The dome of Santo Spirito
Brunelleschi's plan of Santo Spirito
Detail of the classical pilasters of the Sacristy
Facade of the Pazzi Chapel
Plan of the Pazzi Chapel
Dome of the Pazzi Chapel
Interior of the Pazzi Chapel with sculptural plaques by Luca Della Robbia
1450 Codex Rustici drawing showing Brunelleschi's proposed octagonal church (lower right)
Plan of the rotunda of Santa Maria degli Angeli
Brunelleschi's rotunda from Santa Maria degli Angeli. Only the lower wall remains of his original design.
Michelangelo's plan for Saint Peter's Basilica, Rome (1546), superimposed on the earlier plan by Bramante
Plan of the dome, showing the inner and outer domes
Interior structure of the dome
Dome seen from the bell tower
Stairway between the inner and outer domes
The lantern of the dome
The dome viewed from below
Exedra below the main dome
The Holy Trinity by Masaccio (1425–1427) used Brunelleschi's system of perspective
Diagram of Brunelleschi's experiment in perspective
The Delivery of the Keys fresco, 1481–1482, Sistine Chapel, by Perugino (1481–1482), features both linear perspective and Brunelleschi's architectural style

Brunelleschi's first architectural commission was the Ospedale degli Innocenti (1419–c.

Tondo (art)

Renaissance term for a circular work of art, either a painting or a sculpture.

Tondo by Andrea della Robbia
Madonna of the Pomegranate c. 1487 by Sandro Botticelli, tempera on panel, 143.5 cm diameter (Uffizi)
Taddei Tondo, a relief sculpture by Michelangelo in the Royal Academy, London
Christ by Alfred Lange in the church of Saint Mary, Szprotawa (a copy of Rafael Santi's image from 1899 from the Sanssouci gallery)

In Brunelleschi's Hospital of the Innocents, Florence, 1421–24, Andrea della Robbia provided glazed terracotta babes in swaddling clothes in tondos with plain blue backgrounds to be set in the spandrels of the arches.

Renaissance architecture

European architecture of the period between the early 14th and early 16th centuries in different regions, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture.

Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502, by Bramante. This small temple marks the place where St Peter was put to death
Temple of Vesta, Rome, 205 AD. As one of the most important temples of Ancient Rome, it became the model for Bramante's Tempietto
Palladio's engraving of Bramante's Tempietto
Plan of Bramante's Tempietto in Montorio
The Piazza del Campidoglio
The Romanesque Florence Baptistery was the object of Brunelleschi's studies of perspective
Pope Sixtus IV, 1477, builder of the Sistine Chapel. Fresco by Melozzo da Forlì in the Vatican Palace.
Four Humanist philosophers under the patronage of the Medici: Marsilio Ficino, Cristoforo Landino, Angelo Poliziano and Demetrius Chalcondyles. Fresco by Domenico Ghirlandaio.
Cosimo de' Medici the Elder, head of the Medici Bank, sponsored civic building programs. Posthumous portrait by Pontormo.
The Church of the Certosa di Pavia, Lombardy
Scuola Grande di San Marco, Venice
Raphael's unused plan for St. Peter's Basilica
Facade of Sant'Agostino, Rome, built in 1483 by Giacomo di Pietrasanta
Classical Orders, engraving from the Encyclopédie vol. 18. 18th century.
The Dome of St Peter's Basilica, Rome.
Courtyard of Palazzo Strozzi, Florence
Ospedale degli Innocenti in Florence.
The dome of Florence Cathedral (the Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore)
The church of San Lorenzo
Palazzo Medici Riccardi by Michelozzo. Florence, 1444
Basilica of Sant'Andrea, Mantua, the façade
Façade of Santa Maria Novella, 1456–70
The crossing of Santa Maria della Grazie, Milan (1490)
picture above
The Palazzo Farnese, Rome (1534–1545). Designed by Sangallo and Michelangelo.
Palazzo Pandolfini, Florence, by Raphael
Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne.
Palazzo Te, Mantua
St Peter's Basilica
The vestibule of the Laurentian Library
Il Gesù, designed by Giacomo della Porta.
Villa Capra "La Rotonda"
Keystone with a profile of a man, Palazzo Giusti, Verona, Italy
The House of the Blackheads in Riga, Latvia
Royal Summer Palace in Prague is considered the purest Renaissance architecture outside of Italy.
Cathedral of St James, Šibenik
English Renaissance: Hardwick Hall (1590–1597).
French Renaissance: Château de Chambord (1519–39)
Juleum in Helmstedt, Germany (example of Weser Renaissance)
Antwerp City Hall (finished in 1564)
Courtyard of Wawel Castle exemplifies first period of Polish Renaissance
Cloister of the Convent of Christ, Tomar, Portugal, (1557–1591), Diogo de Torralva and Filippo Terzi.
The Palace of Facets on the Cathedral Square of the Moscow Kremlin.
Nordic Renaissance: Frederiksborg Palace (1602–20)
The Escorial (1563–1584), Madrid
Cathedral Basilica of Salvador built between 1657 and 1746, a UNESCO WHS.
The large Basilica of San Francisco in Quito, built between 1535 and 1650, a UNESCO World Heritage Site city.

This led to the building of structures such as Brunelleschi's Hospital of the Innocents with its elegant colonnade forming a link between the charitable building and the public square, and the Laurentian Library where the collection of books established by the Medici family could be consulted by scholars.

Composite order

Mixed order, combining the volutes of the Ionic order capital with the acanthus leaves of the Corinthian order.

Illustration of the Composite order, made in 1695 and kept in Deutsche Fotothek
The Five Orders illustrated by Vignola, 1641
Unlike the Composite capital, this Ionic capital has a different appearance from the front and sides
Roman capital in Ostia Antica (a large archaeological site, close to the modern town of Ostia, in Italy)
Remains of the capital of a Roman Composite column in Ephesus (in present-day coastal Turkey)
Late Roman/Byzantine capital, at the Euphrasian Basilica
10th-century Islamic Composite capital with Arabic-inscribed abacus, probably from Medina Azahara, in the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba (Metropolitan Museum of Art)
Palazzo Capitaniato from Vicenza (Italy), by Andrea Palladio
Rococo capital in the Engelszell Abbey from Austria (1754-1764)
Illustration of the Composite order, that shows the column and the proportion of the column in relation to the diameter of the base of the shaft
Composite pilasters on a façade of the Galerie de Valois from Paris
Composite columns of a bookshelf from Bibliothèque Mazarine (Paris)
Composite capital in the former Palace of Justice (Budapest, Hungary)
Capital of a column from Cărturești Carusel (Bucharest, Romania)

Ospedale degli Innocenti, Florence, 1421, Filippo Brunelleschi

Domenico Ghirlandaio

Italian Renaissance painter born in Florence.

Considered a self-portrait from Adoration of the Magi, 1488
Pope Gregory announces the death of Santa Fina, in the Collegiate Church of San Gimignano (about 1477)
The Adoration of the Shepherds, Sassetti Chapel, containing a portrait of Ghirlandaio as one of the Shepherds
The Confirmation of the Franciscan Rule from the Sassetti Chapel, with portraits of Lorenzo de' Medici and his family occupying prominent positions as spectators to the event
Detail of the Angel appearing to Zacharias showing portraits of the philosophers Marsilio Ficino, Cristoforo Landino, Angelo Poliziano and Demetrios Chalkondyles
Visitation, circa 1491
The Birth of Mary, Tornabuoni Chapel (1485-90), appears to represent a domestic scene from the life of contemporary Florentine nobility

Although mainly known for his fresco cycles Ghirlandaio painted a number of altarpieces including the Virgin Adored by Saints Zenobius, Justus and Others, painted for the church of Saint Justus, now in the Uffizi Gallery and the Adoration of the Magi in the Florentine orphanage, the Ospedale degli Innocenti, in which he included a self-portrait.

Andrea della Robbia

Italian Renaissance sculptor, especially in ceramics.

Andrea della Robbia by Andrea del Sarto
Madonna with Child and Angels (Louvre Museum).
San Agustin (ca 1490), on display at the Carmen Thyssen Museum

One of the most remarkable works by Andrea is the series of medallions with reliefs of the Infant Jesus in white on a blue ground set on the front of the foundling hospital in Florence.

Santissima Annunziata, Florence

Renaissance-style, Catholic minor basilica in Florence, region of Tuscany, Italy.

Map of the church and the convent
The fresco of the Annunciation after cleaning, 2020.
Annunziata Temple
Pietà by Baccio Bandinelli

It is located at the northeastern side of the Piazza Santissima Annunziata near the city center.

Piero di Cosimo

Italian painter of the Renaissance.

Presumed self-portrait at the left side of his painting Perseus Freeing Andromeda
The Death of Procris, c. 1495
Perseus Freeing Andromeda, oil on canvas, 1510 or 1513, Uffizi.
Tritons and Nereids (1500), oil on panel, 37 x158 cm, Milano, Altomani collection.
Young St John the Baptist, 1490s
Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints
Portrait of Simonetta Vespucci, oil on panel painting, c. 1480, 57 x 42 cm, Musée Condé, Chantilly, France
St. John the Evangelist, oil on panel, 1504-6, Honolulu Museum of Art, USA
Venus, Mars and Cupid, c. 1505, Gemäldegalerie, Berlin
Visitation, with Saints Nicolas and Anthony Abbot, c. 1490, National Gallery of Art, Washington DC

Mystical Marriage of St. Catherine of Alexandria (1493) Oil on panel, Ospedale degli Innocenti, Florence


Agency of the United Nations responsible for providing humanitarian and developmental aid to children worldwide.

Flag of UNICEF
UNICEF-care tent in Sudan
UNICEF School in a box contains basic educational items for one teacher and 40 students
Lionel Messi wearing a Barcelona shirt with the UNICEF logo in 2007

The UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre was established in 1988.

Guilds of Florence

The guilds of Florence were secular corporations that controlled the arts and trades in Florence from the twelfth into the sixteenth century.

Coats of arms of the guilds of Florence, 18th century.
Symbols of the guilds in the Palazzo Spini Feroni
The ''Tribunale di Mercatanzia
Torre della Castagna, early headquarters of the Priori of the Guilds of Florence
Statue of Michele di Lando, Loggia del Mercato Nuovo, Florence

The statues of the Orsanmichele were a lavish joint, and highly competitive, effort, the Calimala were responsible for the Baptistry and paid for Ghiberti's famous doors, while the Lana were responsible for the cathedral itself, and paid for the cupola, the altar frontal and other works, and the Seta built and ran the Ospedale degli Innocenti.