Osteoarthritis

arthrosisdegenerative joint diseaseKnee osteoarthritisdegenerative arthritisosteoarthriticosteoarthrosisarthritisSubchondral cystdegenerative joint disease (osteoarthritis)degenerative joint disorder
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a type of joint disease that results from breakdown of joint cartilage and underlying bone.wikipedia
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Arthritis

arthriticjoint inflammationarthritic changes
Unlike some other types of arthritis, only the joints, not internal organs, are affected.
The most common forms are osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease) and rheumatoid arthritis.

Rheumatoid arthritis

rheumatoidrheumatic arthritisarthritis, rheumatoid
In contrast to rheumatoid arthritis, in osteoarthritis the joints do not become hot or red. Inflammation of the synovium (joint cavity lining) and the surrounding joint capsule can also occur, though often mild (compared to the synovial inflammation that occurs in rheumatoid arthritis).
These signs help distinguish rheumatoid from non-inflammatory problems of the joints, such as osteoarthritis.

Ibuprofen

AdvilMotrinBrufen
Pain medications may include paracetamol (acetaminophen) as well as NSAIDs such as naproxen or ibuprofen.
Ibuprofen is used primarily to treat fever (including post-vaccination fever), mild to moderate pain (including pain relief after surgery), painful menstruation, osteoarthritis, dental pain, headaches, and pain from kidney stones.

Ehlers–Danlos syndromes

Ehlers-Danlos syndromeEhlers–Danlos syndromeEhlers Danlos Syndrome
Complications may include aortic dissection, joint dislocations, scoliosis, chronic pain, or early osteoarthritis.

Naproxen

Alevenaproxen sodiumAnaprox
Pain medications may include paracetamol (acetaminophen) as well as NSAIDs such as naproxen or ibuprofen.
Inflammatory sources of pain that may respond to naproxen's anti-inflammatory activity are conditions such as migraine, osteoarthritis, kidney stones, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, gout, ankylosing spondylitis, menstrual cramps, tendinitis, and bursitis.

Crepitus

clicking noisescrackling soundcrackling sound with joint movement
Osteoarthritis can cause a crackling noise (called "crepitus") when the affected joint is moved, especially shoulder and knee joint.
The sound can be created when two rough surfaces in an organism's body come into contact—for example, in osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis when the cartilage around joints erodes and the surfaces in the joint grind against one another, or when the two fractured surfaces of the broken bones rub together.

Legg–Calvé–Perthes disease

Legg–Calvé–Perthes syndromePerthes diseaseLegg-Calvé-Perthes syndrome
It can produce a permanent deformity of the femoral head, which increases the risk of developing osteoarthritis in adults.

Obesity

obesemorbidly obeseoverweight
Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases and conditions, particularly cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, osteoarthritis, and depression.

Bouchard's nodes

Bouchard
In smaller joints, such as at the fingers, hard bony enlargements, called Heberden's nodes (on the distal interphalangeal joints) or Bouchard's nodes (on the proximal interphalangeal joints), may form, and though they are not necessarily painful, they do limit the movement of the fingers significantly.
They are seen in osteoarthritis, where they are caused by formation of calcific spurs of the articular (joint) cartilage.

Alkaptonuria

alkaptonuricsBlack Urine DiseaseIntervertebral disk calcification
The accumulating homogentisic acid causes damage to cartilage (ochronosis, leading to osteoarthritis) and heart valves, as well as precipitating as kidney stones and stones in other organs.

Arthralgia

joint painjoint painsarthralgias
The most common symptoms are joint pain and stiffness.

Inflammation

inflammatoryinflammatory responseinflamed
Inflammation of the synovium (joint cavity lining) and the surrounding joint capsule can also occur, though often mild (compared to the synovial inflammation that occurs in rheumatoid arthritis).
In contrast, chronic inflammation is associated with various diseases, such as hay fever, periodontal disease, atherosclerosis, and osteoarthritis.

Joint locking (medicine)

Joint locking (symptom)Joint lockinglocking
A person may also complain of joint locking and joint instability.

Costochondritis

costrochondritis
However, it may be the result of physical trauma (due to direct injury, strenuous lifting, or severe bouts of coughing), associated with scoliosis, ankylosing spondylitis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, or a tumor (benign or cancerous).

Marfan syndrome

Marfan's syndromeMarfanMarfanoid
Early osteoarthritis may occur.

Radiographic classification of osteoarthritis

Kellgren-Lawrence grading scaleradiographic classificationradiographic classifications of osteoarthritis
In osteoarthritis, the choice of treatment is based on pain and decreased function, but radiography can be useful before surgery in order to prepare for the procedure.

Spondylosis

cervical spondylosislumbar spondylosisspinal spondylotic changes
In the more narrow sense it refers to spinal osteoarthritis, the age-related wear and tear of the spinal column, which is the most common cause of spondylosis.

Bunion

Hallux valgusbunionsBunionectomy
Osteoarthritis of the toes may be a factor causing formation of bunions, rendering them red or swollen.
Osteoarthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, diminished and/or altered range of motion, and discomfort with pressure applied to the bump or with motion of the joint, may all accompany bunion development.

Spondyloarthropathy

spondyloarthropathiesspondyloarthritisspondylarthritis
These criteria were found to be 92% sensitive and 98% specific for hand osteoarthritis versus other entities such as rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthropathies.
In the broadest sense, the term spondyloarthropathy includes joint involvement of vertebral column from any type of joint disease, including rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, but the term is often used for a specific group of disorders with certain common features, the group often being termed specifically seronegative spondylarthropathies.

WOMAC

The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) is a widely used, proprietary set of standardized questionnaires used by health professionals to evaluate the condition of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee and hip, including pain, stiffness, and physical functioning of the joints.

Hyaline cartilage

articular cartilagegristleCartilage
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a type of joint disease that results from breakdown of joint cartilage and underlying bone.
The biochemical breakdown of the articular cartilage results in osteoarthritis – the most common type of joint disease.

Paracetamol

acetaminophenPanadolTylenol PM
Pain medications may include paracetamol (acetaminophen) as well as NSAIDs such as naproxen or ibuprofen.
A 2015 review, however, found it provided only a small benefit in osteoarthritis.

Weight loss

weight-losslose weightlosing weight
For overweight people, weight loss may be an important factor.
It could reduce pain and increase movement in people with osteoarthritis of the knee.

Ligament

ligamentsknee ligamentcapsular ligaments
The ligaments within the joint become thickened and fibrotic and the menisci can become damaged and wear away.
Instability of a joint can over time lead to wear of the cartilage and eventually to osteoarthritis.