Ostrich

StruthioniformesStruthionidaeostrich eggostrichesostrich featheralarming-looking birdbirdostrich feathersostrich racesostrich racing
The ostriches are a family, Struthionidae, of flightless birds.wikipedia
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Flightless bird

flightlessflightless birdsflightlessness
The ostriches are a family, Struthionidae, of flightless birds.
There are over 60 extant species, including the well known ratites (ostriches, emu, cassowaries, rheas and kiwi) and penguins.

List of largest birds

two largestlargest birds in the worldlargest living bird
The common ostrich is the more widespread of the two living species, and is the largest living bird species.
The largest extant bird species, a member of the Struthioniformes, is the ostrich (Struthio camelus), from the plains of Africa and Arabia.

Struthio

Ostrichesits kindostrich
The two extant species of ostrich are the common ostrich and Somali ostrich, both in the genus Struthio, which also contains several species known from Holocene fossils such as the Asian ostrich. Apart from these enigmatic birds, the fossil record of the ostriches continues with several species of the modern genus Struthio, which are known from the Early Miocene onwards.
Struthio is a genus of bird in the order Struthioniformes.

Ratite

ratitesRatitaeheavy ground-dwelling birds
Ostriches are classified in the ratite group of birds, all extant species of which are flightless, including the kiwis, emus, and rheas.
Previously, all the flightless members had been assigned to the order Struthioniformes, which is more recently regarded as containing only the ostrich.

Tinamou

TinamidaeTinamiformestinamous
However, recent genetic analysis has found that the group is not monophyletic, as it is paraphyletic with respect to the tinamous, so the ostriches are classified as the only members of the order.
Phylogenomic studies have placed it as the sister group to extant Australasian and Oceanian ratites (i.e. the cassowaries, emus, and kiwis), thus locating it well within the ratite phylogenetic tree, with the South American rheas and African ostriches as successive outgroups.

Emu

Dromaius novaehollandiaeemusD. novaehollandiae
Ostriches are classified in the ratite group of birds, all extant species of which are flightless, including the kiwis, emus, and rheas.
The emu is the second tallest bird in the world, only being exceeded in height by the ostrich;

Elephant bird

elephant birdsaepyornithidAepyornithidae
The African Eremopezus, when not considered a basal secretarybird or shoebill, is sometimes considered an ostrich relative or an "aepyornithid-like" taxon.
While they were in close geographical proximity to the ostrich, their closest living relatives are kiwi, suggesting that ratites did not diversify by vicariance during the breakup of Gondwana but instead evolved from ancestors that dispersed more recently by flying.

Eremopezus

EremopezidaeEremopezus eocaenusStromeria
The African Eremopezus, when not considered a basal secretarybird or shoebill, is sometimes considered an ostrich relative or an "aepyornithid-like" taxon.
The tarsometatarsus is also more similar to that of an unspecific ratite, such as an emu, ostrich or rhea, rather than to the apomorphic one of the elephant birds.

Kiwi

kiwisApterygidaekiwi bird
Ostriches are classified in the ratite group of birds, all extant species of which are flightless, including the kiwis, emus, and rheas.
Their adaptation to a terrestrial life is extensive: like all the other ratites (ostrich, emu, rhea and cassowary), they have no keel on the sternum to anchor wing muscles.

Palaeognathae

paleognathPaleognathaepalaeognath
As with most other ratites, ostriches are believed to have developed flightlessness in the wake of the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event of about 66 Ma. The sudden absence of non-avian dinosaurs opened ecological niche space for large herbivorous animals and limited predatory threats, prompting volant ancestral paleognaths dispersed across the southern hemisphere to convergently lose the capability for flight.
There are 47 species of tinamous, 5 of kiwis (Apteryx), 3 of cassowaries (Casuarius), 1 of emus (Dromaius) (another became extinct in historic times), 2 of rheas (Rhea) and 2 of ostrich (Struthio).

Asian ostrich

Struthio asiaticusAsiaS. asiaticus
The two extant species of ostrich are the common ostrich and Somali ostrich, both in the genus Struthio, which also contains several species known from Holocene fossils such as the Asian ostrich.
The Asian or Asiatic ostrich (Struthio asiaticus), is an extinct species of ostrich that ranged from Morocco, the Middle East to China and Mongolia.

Rhea (bird)

rhearheasñandú
Ostriches are classified in the ratite group of birds, all extant species of which are flightless, including the kiwis, emus, and rheas.
Rheas are large, flightless birds with grey-brown plumage, long legs and long necks, similar to an ostrich.

Common ostrich

ostrichesostrichStruthio camelus
The two extant species of ostrich are the common ostrich and Somali ostrich, both in the genus Struthio, which also contains several species known from Holocene fossils such as the Asian ostrich.
It is one of two extant species of ostriches, the only living members of the genus Struthio in the ratite order of birds.

Palaeotis

P. weigeltiPalaeotis weigeltiPaleotis
Palaeotis and Remiornis from the Middle Eocene and unspecified ratite remains are known from the Eocene and Oligocene of Europe and Africa.
After a suggestion by Storrs L. Olson, a review of the type specimen and the referral of several other fossils by Houde and Haubold (1987) concluded that Palaeotis is a palaeognath and assigned it to the same order as ostriches; the Struthioniformes.

Pachystruthio

Struthio dmanisensisGiant ostrichStruthio" dmanisensis
transcaucasicus were transferred to the genus Pachystruthio''.
transcaucasicus', which were all formerly placed with the ostrich genus, Struthio.

Family (biology)

familyfamiliessubfamily
The ostriches are a family, Struthionidae, of flightless birds.

Holocene

PresentRecentHolocene epoch
The two extant species of ostrich are the common ostrich and Somali ostrich, both in the genus Struthio, which also contains several species known from Holocene fossils such as the Asian ostrich.

Miocene

Late MioceneEarly MioceneMiddle Miocene
Ostriches first appeared during the Miocene epoch, though various Paleocene, Eocene, and Oligocene fossils may also belong to the family. Apart from these enigmatic birds, the fossil record of the ostriches continues with several species of the modern genus Struthio, which are known from the Early Miocene onwards.

Paleocene

PalaeoceneLate PaleocenePaleocene epoch
Ostriches first appeared during the Miocene epoch, though various Paleocene, Eocene, and Oligocene fossils may also belong to the family.

Eocene

Late EoceneMiddle EoceneEocene Epoch
Palaeotis and Remiornis from the Middle Eocene and unspecified ratite remains are known from the Eocene and Oligocene of Europe and Africa. Ostriches first appeared during the Miocene epoch, though various Paleocene, Eocene, and Oligocene fossils may also belong to the family.

Oligocene

Late OligoceneOligocene epochEarly Oligocene
Ostriches first appeared during the Miocene epoch, though various Paleocene, Eocene, and Oligocene fossils may also belong to the family.

Secretarybird

secretary birdSagittarius serpentariussecretary-bird
The African Eremopezus, when not considered a basal secretarybird or shoebill, is sometimes considered an ostrich relative or an "aepyornithid-like" taxon.

Shoebill

BalaenicipididaeBalaeniceps rexBalaeniceps
The African Eremopezus, when not considered a basal secretarybird or shoebill, is sometimes considered an ostrich relative or an "aepyornithid-like" taxon.

Fossil

fossilsfossil recordfossilized
Apart from these enigmatic birds, the fossil record of the ostriches continues with several species of the modern genus Struthio, which are known from the Early Miocene onwards.

Ichnotaxon

ichnogenusichnospeciesichnotaxa
Several of these fossil forms are ichnotaxa (that is, classified according to the organism's footprints or other trace rather than its body) and their association with those described from distinctive bones is contentious and in need of revision pending more good material.