Ottoman Caliphate

The Battle of Marj Dabiq between the Ottoman and Mamluk armies
Commemorative plaque where the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca was signed
"Turks War on Patriarchs," following the Abolition of the Caliphate as reported in The New York Times, 16 March 1924

The claim of the heads of the Turkish Ottoman dynasty to be the caliphs of Islam in the late medieval and the early modern era.

- Ottoman Caliphate

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Rashidun Caliphate at its greatest extent, under Caliph Uthman's rule

Caliphate

Institution or public office governing a territory under Islamic rule.

Institution or public office governing a territory under Islamic rule.

Rashidun Caliphate at its greatest extent, under Caliph Uthman's rule
The Caliphate, 622–750
Mustansiriya Madrasah in Baghdad
Map of the Caliphate of Cordoba c. 1000
The Almohad empire at its greatest extent, c. 1180–1212
Map of the Fatimid Caliphate at its largest extent in the early 11th century
Ayyubid Sultanate (in pink) at the death of Saladin in 1193
The Ottoman Empire at its greatest extent in 1683, under Sultan Mehmed IV
Abdulmejid II, the last caliph of Sunni Islam from the Ottoman dynasty, with his daughter Dürrüşehvar Sultan
Official portrait of Abdulmejid II as caliph
Hafiz Muhiuddin Aurangzeb, unlike his predecessors, was considered to be a Caliph of India
The Ahmadiyya flag, first designed in 1939, during the leadership of the Second Caliph
ISIL's territory, in grey, at the time of its greatest territorial extent in May 2015
Military situation in Libya in early 2016:
Location dot grey.svg Ansar al-Sharia Location dot black.svg Islamic State

Often acting as little more than a symbolic figurehead, the formal office of Caliph remained from the death of Muhammad in 632 until the Ottoman Caliphate was formally dismantled in 1924.

Ottoman Empire

Empire that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

Empire that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

The Ottoman Empire in 1683
The Battle of Nicopolis in 1396, depicted in an Ottoman miniature from 1523
The Ottoman Empire in 1683
Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror's entry into Constantinople; painting by Fausto Zonaro (1854–1929)
An Ottoman miniature of the Battle of Mohács in 1526
Map of Ottoman territorial acquisitions up to 1683
The Second Siege of Vienna in 1683, by Frans Geffels (1624–1694).
Austrian troops led by Prince Eugene of Savoy captured Belgrade in 1717. Austrian control in Serbia lasted until the Turkish victory in the Austro-Russian–Turkish War (1735–1739). With the 1739 Treaty of Belgrade, the Ottoman Empire regained northern Bosnia, Habsburg Serbia (including Belgrade), Oltenia and the southern parts of the Banat of Temeswar.
Ottoman troops attempting to halt the advancing Russians during the Siege of Ochakov in 1788
Selim III receiving dignitaries during an audience at the Gate of Felicity, Topkapı Palace. Painting by Konstantin Kapıdağlı.
The siege of the Acropolis in 1826–1827 during the Greek War of Independence
Opening ceremony of the First Ottoman Parliament at the Dolmabahçe Palace in 1876. The First Constitutional Era lasted only two years until 1878. The Ottoman Constitution and Parliament were restored 30 years later with the Young Turk Revolution in 1908.
Ottoman troops storming Fort Shefketil during the Crimean War of 1853–1856
The Empire in 1875 under sultan Abdul-Aziz
Declaration of the Young Turk Revolution by the leaders of the Ottoman millets in 1908
Admiral Wilhelm Souchon, who commanded the Black Sea Raid on 29 October 1914, and his officers in Ottoman naval uniforms
The Armenian genocide was the result of the Ottoman government's deportation and ethnic cleansing policies regarding its Armenian citizens after the Battle of Sarikamish (1914–1915) and the collapse of the Caucasus Front against the Imperial Russian Army and Armenian volunteer units during World War I. An estimated 600,000 to more than 1 million, or up to 1.5 million people were killed.
Mehmed VI, the last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, leaving the country after the abolition of the Ottoman sultanate, 17 November 1922
Ambassadors at the Topkapı Palace
Inside Harem, the private residence of the sultan in Topkapı Palace
Yusuf Ziya Pasha, Ottoman ambassador to the United States, in Washington, 1913
An Ottoman trial, 1877
An unhappy wife complains to the Qadi about her husband's impotence as depicted in an Ottoman miniature.
Ottoman sipahis in battle, holding the crescent banner (by Józef Brandt)
Selim III watching the parade of his new army, the Nizam-ı Cedid (New Order) troops, in 1793
A German postcard depicting the Ottoman Navy at the Golden Horn in the early stages of World War I. At top left is a portrait of Sultan Mehmed V.
Ottoman pilots in early 1912
Administrative divisions in 1899 (year 1317 Hijri)
A European bronze medal from the period of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror, 1481
The Ottoman Bank was founded in 1856 in Constantinople. On 26 August 1896, the bank was occupied by members of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation.
Smyrna under Ottoman rule in 1900
View of Galata (Karaköy) and the Galata Bridge on the Golden Horn, c. 1880–1893
1911 Ottoman calendar shown in several different languages such as: Ottoman Turkish, Greek, Armenian, Hebrew, Bulgarian and French.
Abdülmecid II was the last caliph of Islam and a member of the Ottoman dynasty.
Mehmed the Conqueror and Patriarch Gennadius II
The original Church of St. Anthony of Padua, Istanbul was built in 1725 by the local Italian community of Istanbul.
Depiction of a hookah shop in Lebanon, Ottoman Empire
Beyazıt State Library was founded in 1884.
Ahmet Nedîm Efendi, one of the most celebrated Ottoman poets
Süleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul, designed by Sinan in the 16th century and a major example of the Classical Ottoman style
Ottoman miniature lost its function with the Westernization of Ottoman culture.
Turkish women baking bread, 1790
Observatory of Taqi ad-Din in 1577
Girl Reciting the Qurān (Kuran Okuyan Kız), an 1880 painting by the Ottoman polymath Osman Hamdi Bey, whose works often showed women engaged in educational activities.
Members of Beşiktaş J.K. in 1903
Members of Galatasaray S.K. (football) in 1905
Miniature from Surname-i Vehbi showing the Mehteran, the music band of the Janissaries
The shadow play Karagöz and Hacivat was widespread throughout the Ottoman Empire.
Musicians and dancers entertain the crowds, from Surname-i Hümayun, 1720.
A Musical Gathering - 18th century
Acrobacy in Surname-i Hümayun

The caliphate was abolished on 3 March 1924.

Atatürk in 1930

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Turkish field marshal, revolutionary statesman, author, and the founding father of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first president from 1923 until his death in 1938.

Turkish field marshal, revolutionary statesman, author, and the founding father of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first president from 1923 until his death in 1938.

Atatürk in 1930
The house where Atatürk was born in the Ottoman city of Salonika (Thessaloniki in present-day Greece), now a museum
The reconstructed house of Atatürk's paternal grandparents, in the Ottoman village of Kocacık (Kodžadžik in present-day North Macedonia)
Atatürk on the day of graduation from the War Academy in 1905
Atatürk (front row, second from left) with the Ottoman Turkish observers at the Picardie army manoeuvres in France, 28 September 1910
Atatürk (left) with an Ottoman military officer and Bedouin forces in Derna, Tripolitania Vilayet, 1912
Cevat Pasha and Atatürk on the daily Tasvîr-i Efkâr dated 29 October 1915
Atatürk with Ottoman military officers during the Battle of Gallipoli, Çanakkale, 1915
Atatürk in 1918, the Commander of the Yıldırım Army Group and an Honorary aide-de-camp of the Sultan
Atatürk (right) in Angora (Ankara) with İsmet Pasha (left)
Prominent nationalists at the Sivas Congress, left to right: Muzaffer (Kılıç), Rauf (Orbay), Bekir Sami (Kunduh), Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk), Ruşen Eşref (Ünaydın), Cemil Cahit (Toydemir), Cevat Abbas (Gürer)
Atatürk inspects the Turkish troops on 18 June 1922
A British cartoon of 1923 satirising Atatürk's rule in Turkey
Atatürk at the opening ceremony of the Samsun-Çarşamba railroad (1928)
Atatürk in 1923, with members of the Mevlevi Order, before its institutional expression became illegal and their dervish lodge was changed into the Mevlana Museum. The Mevlevi Order managed to transform itself into a non-political organization which still exists.
In 1924, during his speech in Bursa
Atatürk during the Republic Day celebrations on the second anniversary of the Turkish Republic, 29 October 1925.
Atatürk with his Panama hat just after the Kastamonu speech in 1925
Atatürk is greeted by marines in Büyükada (14 July 1927)
Atatürk at the 1927 opening of the State Art and Sculpture Museum
Atatürk at the library of the Çankaya Presidential Residence in Ankara, on 16 July 1929
Atatürk attending a class at the Law School of the Istanbul House of Multiple Sciences in 1930
Atatürk introducing the new Turkish alphabet to the people of Kayseri on 20 September 1928
In 1930, leaving the parliament after the 7th-year celebration meeting.
Atatürk with the Liberal Republican Party leader Fethi Okyar and his daughter in Yalova, on 13 August 1930
In 1931, during the establishment ceremony of the Turkish History Institution. Atatürk is standing with Afet İnan (on his left) and Yusuf Akçura (first from the left).
Atatürk at the opening of the Türkkuşu flight school in Etimesgut on 3 May 1935
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Atatürk with King Amānullāh Khān of Afghanistan in Ankara, 1928. King Amānullāh attempted to emulate many of Atatürk's reforms in Afghanistan, but was overthrown.
Atatürk with King Faisal I of Iraq in Ankara, 1931
During a reception at the USSR Embassy in Ankara, on 7 November 1927
Exchanges on the concept of a Balkan Federation during the visit of Voroshilov, a vision of Atatürk's which was never achieved
Atatürk (center) hosting the Greek Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos (at the left) in Ankara, October 1930
Atatürk (right) with Reza Shah Pahlavi (left) of Iran, during the Shah's visit to Turkey
Atatürk observes the Turkish troops during the military exercise on 28 May 1936
During the visit of King Alexander I of Yugoslavia in 1931
Atatürk with Greek Prime Minister Ioannis Metaxas (second from right) at the Balkan Pact summit in Ankara, March 1938
Telegram sent by Atatürk after the local legislative assembly accepted his proposal for the Hatay State's flag
Atatürk and Celâl Bayar visiting the Sümerbank Nazilli Cotton Factory, which was established as a part of the cotton-related industry
Atatürk supported large-scale government subsidized industrial complexes, such as Sümerbank, increasingly after the Great Depression.
Atatürk and İsmet İnönü at Nazilli Cotton Factory (1937)
Kemal Atatürk and his wife Latife Uşakizâde during a trip to Bursa, 1924
A view from the state funeral of Atatürk, November 1938
Anıtkabir, the mausoleum of Atatürk in Ankara, is visited by large crowds every year during national holidays such as Republic Day on October 29.
Associated Press news article about the admiration of women from different parts of the world for Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the handsome leader of the Turkish Republic.
Atatürk memorial on Paseo de la Reforma in Mexico City
Statue of Atatürk in Ankara

On 3 March 1924, the caliphate was officially abolished and its powers within Turkey were transferred to the GNA.

Map of Turkey in 1927 which was published before the alphabet reform

Atatürk's reforms

Atatürk's Reforms were a series of political, legal, religious, cultural, social, and economic policy changes, designed to convert the new Republic of Turkey into a secular, modern nation-state, implemented under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in accordance with the Kemalist ideology.

Atatürk's Reforms were a series of political, legal, religious, cultural, social, and economic policy changes, designed to convert the new Republic of Turkey into a secular, modern nation-state, implemented under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in accordance with the Kemalist ideology.

Map of Turkey in 1927 which was published before the alphabet reform
Abolition of the Caliphate, The Last Caliph, Le Petit Journal illustré, 16 March 1924
"The Sheep of Ankara, shows its hand last." by Sedat Simavi, in Istanbul magazine Güleryüz on October 1922.
Atatürk speaking with a civilian in 1931.
Atatürk with his top hat
Canadian political cartoon of a woman in Quebec reading a sign that reads:
"News bulletin: for the first time in Turkish history women will vote and be eligible to the public office in the general election which takes place this week."
Women were granted the right to vote in Turkey in 1930, but the right to vote was not extended to women in provincial elections in Quebec until 1940.
An Ottoman trial in 1877
Ottoman Turkish alphabet and 1930s modern Turkish alphabet guide, from the Republic Museum, Ankara

The Ottoman Empire was an Islamic state in which the head of the state, the Sultan, also held the position of Caliph.

"The Last Caliph", an illustration in Le Petit Journal illustré in March 1924, shortly after the abolition was carried out.

Abolition of the Caliphate

"The Last Caliph", an illustration in Le Petit Journal illustré in March 1924, shortly after the abolition was carried out.
Abolition of the Caliphate in 1924 as reported in the Times of London, 3 March 1924
The Caliph being officially informed of his dethronement
"Turks War on Patriarchs," following the Abolition of the Caliphate as reported in The New York Times, 16 March 1924

The Ottoman Caliphate, the world's last widely recognized caliphate, was abolished on 3 March 1924 (27 Rajab 1342 AH) by decree of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey.

Clockwise from top left: Delegation gathered in Sivas Congress to determine the objectives of the Turkish National Movement; Turkish civilians carrying ammunition to the front; Kuva-yi Milliye infantry; Turkish horse cavalry in chase; Turkish Army's capture of Smyrna; troops in Ankara's Ulus Square preparing to leave for the front.

Turkish War of Independence

While World War I ended for the Ottoman Empire with the Armistice of Mudros, the Allied Powers continued occupying and seizing land.

While World War I ended for the Ottoman Empire with the Armistice of Mudros, the Allied Powers continued occupying and seizing land.

Clockwise from top left: Delegation gathered in Sivas Congress to determine the objectives of the Turkish National Movement; Turkish civilians carrying ammunition to the front; Kuva-yi Milliye infantry; Turkish horse cavalry in chase; Turkish Army's capture of Smyrna; troops in Ankara's Ulus Square preparing to leave for the front.
Front page of İkdam on 4 November 1918, after the Three Pashas fled the Ottoman Empire following World War I
Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) Pasha in 1918, then an Ottoman army general
Ahmed Tevfik (Okday) Pasha and Rıza Tevfik (Bölükbaşı) at the Paris Peace Conference
Greek troops marching on İzmir's coastal street, May 1919.
Borders and plebiscites of the National Pact outlined in the Erzurum Congress
Mustafa Kemal and his colleagues in Erzurum (5 July 1919)
Fire caused by the British bombardment in Mudanya (6 July 1920)
Allied occupation of Constantinople
A part from a newspaper published on 18 March 1920 (The Gray River Argus, New Zealand)
Opening of the Grand National Assembly
Execution of a Kemalist by the British forces in İzmit. (1920)
Borders of the Ottoman Empire according to the Treaty of Sèvres (1920) which was annulled and replaced by the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923
Turkish nationalist militias in Cilicia
Zones of control held by the Ankara government and the Allies
Depicteé in a 1922 oil painting, the Turkish recapture of İzmir (Smyrna in Greek), on 9 September 1922
A political cartoon: Greek king Constantine runs away from the bomb which reads "KEMAL"
Turkish troops enter Constantinople on 6 October 1923
Kemal Pasha inspects the Turkish troops (18 June 1922)
The Treaty of Lausanne, signed in 1923 that guaranteed Turkey's independence, replacing the Treaty of Sèvres
Propaganda poster of the Turkish National Movement
Hatıra-i Zafer (Memory of Victory) by Hasan Sabri in 1925.

The Allied Powers stated that the occupation was temporary and its purpose was to protect the monarchy, the Caliphate and the minorities.

The Kaaba at Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest Islamic site

Islam

Abrahamic monotheistic religion centred primarily around the Quran, a religious text that is considered by Muslims to be the direct word of God (or Allah) as it was revealed to Muhammad, the main and final Islamic prophet.

Abrahamic monotheistic religion centred primarily around the Quran, a religious text that is considered by Muslims to be the direct word of God (or Allah) as it was revealed to Muhammad, the main and final Islamic prophet.

The Kaaba at Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest Islamic site
Muhammad receiving his first revelation from the angel Gabriel. From the manuscript Jami' al-Tawarikh by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, 1307.
The first chapter of the Quran, Al-Fatiha (The Opening), is seven verses
A Persian miniature depicts Muhammad leading Abraham, Moses, Jesus and other prophets in prayer.
Silver coin of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, inscribed with the Shahadah
Muslim men prostrating in prayer, at the Umayyad Mosque, Damascus.
A fast-breaking feast, known as Iftar, is served traditionally with dates
Pilgrims at the Great Mosque of Mecca during the Hajj season
Muslim men reading the Quran
Portrait of the Mughal Emperor Akbar supplicating to God.
Rashidun and Umayyad expansion
Dome of the Rock built by caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan; completed at the end of the Second Fitna
The eye, according to Hunain ibn Ishaq from a manuscript dated c. 1200
Ghazan Khan, 7th Ilkhanate ruler of the Mongol Empire, converts to Islam
Abdülmecid II was the last Caliph of Islam from the Ottoman dynasty.
World Muslim population by percentage (Pew Research Center, 2014).
The nine volumes of Sahih Al-Bukhari, one of the six Sunni hadith books
The Imam Hussein Shrine in Iraq is a holy site for Shia Muslims
An overview of the major sects and madhahib of Islam
The Whirling Dervishes, or Mevlevi Order by the tomb of Sufi-mystic Rumi
Islamic schools of law in the Muslim world
Crimean Tatar Muslim students (1856)
Islamic veils represent modesty
John of Damascus, under the Umayyad Caliphate, viewed Islamic doctrines as a hodgepodge from the Bible.
Great Mosque of Djenné, in the west African country of Mali
Dome in Po-i-Kalyan, Bukhara, Uzbekistan
14th century Great Mosque of Xi'an in China
16th century Menara Kudus Mosque in Indonesia showing Indian influence
The phrase Bismillah in an 18th-century Islamic calligraphy from the Ottoman region.
Geometric arabesque tiling on the underside of the dome of Hafiz Shirazi's tomb in Shiraz, Iran
Ulu mosque in Utrecht, Netherlands

The caliphate was claimed by the Ottoman dynasty of the Ottoman Empire since Murad I's conquest of Edirne in 1362, and its claims were strengthened in 1517 as Selim I became the ruler of Mecca and Medina.

Committee of Union and Progress

Secret revolutionary organization and political party active between 1889 and 1926 in the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Turkey.

Secret revolutionary organization and political party active between 1889 and 1926 in the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Turkey.

Members of the Young Turks: İshak Sükuti, Serâceddin Bey, Tunalı Hilmi, Âkil Muhtar, Mithat Şükrü, Emin Bey, Lutfi Bey, Doctor Şefik, Nûri Ahmed, Doctor Reshid and Celal Münif
Ahmet Rıza, prominent early member of the CUP
Map of Ottoman Europe (Rumelia) in 1908. The region, then experiencing a low-intensity civil war known as the Macedonian Struggle, was the birthplace of the CUP and its constitutionalist revolution
Lithograph celebrating the Young Turk Revolution. Enver and Niyazi are depicted breaking the chains of Lady Liberty, who is helped up by the Young Ottomans
Members of the Central Committee of the CUP proclaiming the Second Constitutional Era. Second from left sits Talât Pasha, to his right is Ahmed Rıza. Back row second from left is Enver Pasha, to his right Hüseyin Kazım (Kadri) and Midhat Şükrü (Bleda)
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Abdul Hamid II at Selanik, where he was exiled after his dethronement in the 31 March Incident
Talât Pasha, undisputed leader of the CUP and the Three Pashas triumvirate. By 1917, he was both Grand Vizier and Interior Minister
Opening of the Ottoman Parliament, 1908
The front page of the Le Petit Journal magazine in February 1913 depicting the murder of Minister of War Nazım Pasha during the 1913 coup
The Revenge Map, published by the Society of Muslim Refugees from Rumeliya. In black is the part of the Ottoman Empire lost during the Balkan Wars from which many Muhacirs fled
Ziya Gökalp, ideologue of the committee and later member of Mustafa Kemal's Grand National Assembly
Propaganda postcard with the atrocities of Bulgarian and Greek troops over the Muslim populations during the Balkan Wars.
Enver Pasha, the Minister of War
Unionist Shaykh-al-Islam Mustafa Hayri delivering Mehmed V's Declaration of Holy War
Map of the Ottoman Empire on the eve of World War I
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Adana Armenians being deported to Syria
Talât with CUP leaders Halil Bey and Enver Pasha and Zionist politician Alfred Nossig, 1915
Central Powers' delegation to Brest Litovsk, from left to right: General Max Hoffman (Germany), Ottakar Czernin (Austrian Minister of Foreign Affairs), Grand Vizier Talât Pasha, Richard von Kühlmann (German Minister of Foreign Affairs)
The front page of the Ottoman newspaper İkdam on 4 November 1918 after the Three Pashas fled the country following World War I. Showing left to right Cemal Pasha; Talât Pasha; Enver Pasha
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The Pembe Konak, the building where the CUP's Istanbul headquarters was located

Later that month, in his capacity as Caliph of all Muslims, he issued a declaration of jihad against the Entente ordering all Muslims everywhere in the world to fight for the destruction of those nations.

Sultan Abdul Hamid II in 1899

Abdul Hamid II

Abdülhamid or Abdul Hamid II (II.

Abdülhamid or Abdul Hamid II (II.

Sultan Abdul Hamid II in 1899
A portrait of young Abdul Hamid
Ottoman troops under Romanian attack at the Siege of Plevna (1877) in the Russo-Turkish War (1877–78)
Şehzade (Prince) Abdul Hamid in 1868.
Abdul Hamid II greeting people
20 kuruş during the reign of Abdul Hamid II, dating 1878
Seal of Abdul Hamid II
Map of the Ottoman Empire during the reign of Abdul Hamid II
Abdul Hamid II attempted to correspond with the Chinese Muslim troops in service of the Qing imperial army serving under General Dong Fuxiang; they were also known as the Kansu Braves
Opening of the first Ottoman Parliament (Meclis-i Umumî), 1877.
Greek lithograph celebrating the Young Turk Revolution in 1908 and the restoration of the 1876 constitution in the Ottoman Empire
The mausoleum (türbe) of Sultans Mahmud II, Abdulaziz, and Abdul Hamid II, located at Divanyolu street, Istanbul
An example of what once hung on the Door of Repentance of the Ka'ba in 1897 until 1898. It was made in Egypt under Abdul Hamid II's ruling of the Ottoman Empire. His name is stitched into the fifth line following a verse from the Qur'an.
The tomb of the Libyan Sufi Sheikh Muhammad Zafir al-Madani in Istanbul who initiated the Sultan into the Shadhili Sufi Order
A sample of his handwritten poetry in Persian language and scripts, which was taken from the book My Father Abdul Hameed, written by his daughter Ayşe Sultan
Eunuch near the door of the sultan's harem (from East and War by Vlas Doroshevich
Abdul Hamid II, 1908 (L'Illustration)
Enver Bey, Sultan Abdul Hamid II and Niyazi Bey
Abdul Hamid II arrives in Thessaloniki
Istanbul Military Museum Abdulhamid II desk

He adopted a new ideological principle, Pan-Islamism; since Ottoman sultans beginning with 1517 were also nominally Caliphs, he wanted to promote that fact and emphasized the Ottoman Caliphate.

Mecca

City and administrative center of the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia, and the holiest city in Islam.

City and administrative center of the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia, and the holiest city in Islam.

Panorama of Mecca, 1845, from the Khalili Collection of Hajj and the Arts of Pilgrimage
The area surrounding the Haram Shareef.
The Hajj involves pilgrims visiting Al-Haram Mosque, but mainly camping and spending time in the plains of Mina and Arafah
Jabal al-Nour, the mountain atop which is the Hira cave, where it is believed Muhammad received his first revelation.
The Quran Gate
Mecca as seen from the International Space Station
The al-'Aziziyah district of Mecca
Kaaba in July 2021, during COVID-19 restrictions.
Al-Haram Mosque and the Kaaba
Kaaba during expansion in 2013
Hajj terminal
Entry Gate of Mecca on Highway 40
Mecca Metro Route Map
Mecca, {{circa}} 1718 CE
Mecca, c. 1778 CE
Mecca, in the 1880s
Mecca in 1910
Pilgrims surround the Ka'bah in 1910

In 1517, the then Sharif of Mecca, Barakat bin Muhammad, acknowledged the supremacy of the Ottoman Caliph but retained a great degree of local autonomy.