Ottoman Caliphate

Ottoman CaliphcaliphateCaliphCaliph of IslamTurkish Sultanabolition of the Ottoman Caliphatecaliphal lineGreat Flag of the CaliphsKhilafatMuslim Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Caliphate, under the Ottoman dynasty of the Ottoman Empire, was the last Sunni Islamic caliphate of the late medieval and the early modern era.wikipedia
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Ottoman Empire

OttomanOttomansTurks
The Ottoman Caliphate, under the Ottoman dynasty of the Ottoman Empire, was the last Sunni Islamic caliphate of the late medieval and the early modern era. Since the 14th century, the caliphate was claimed by the Turkish sultans of the Ottoman Empire starting with Murad I, and they gradually came to be viewed as the de facto leaders and representative of the Islamic world.
The Ottoman Empire (, also in Persian, ', literally "The Exalted Ottoman State"; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti; Empire ottoman ), known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey''', was a state and caliphate that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

Abolition of the Caliphate

the Caliphate was abolishedabolished soon afterwardsabolished the institution of the caliphate on 3 March 1924
Abdülmecid II, the last Ottoman caliph, held his caliphal position for a couple of years after the partitioning, but with Mustafa Kemal's secular reforms and the subsequent exile of the royal Osmanoğlu family from the Republic of Turkey in 1924, the caliphal position was abolished.
The Ottoman Caliphate, the world's last widely recognized caliphate, was abolished on 3 March 1924 by decree of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey as one of the reforms following the replacement of the Ottoman Empire with the Republic of Turkey under Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.

Atatürk's Reforms

reformslaw of suffragehis reforms
Abdülmecid II, the last Ottoman caliph, held his caliphal position for a couple of years after the partitioning, but with Mustafa Kemal's secular reforms and the subsequent exile of the royal Osmanoğlu family from the Republic of Turkey in 1924, the caliphal position was abolished.
The Ottoman Empire was an Islamic state in which the head of the state, the Sultan, also held the position of Caliph.

Istanbul

İstanbulConstantinopleIstanbul, Turkey
From Edirne and later from Constantinople (present-day Istanbul), the Ottoman sultans ruled over an empire that, at its peak, covered Anatolia, most of the Middle East, North Africa, the Caucasus, and extended deep into Eastern Europe.
It was instrumental in the advancement of Christianity during Roman and Byzantine times, before the Ottomans conquered the city in 1453 CE and transformed it into an Islamic stronghold and the seat of the Ottoman Caliphate.

Osmanoğlu family

Osman Selaheddin OsmanoğluEmine MükbileMahmud Namık
Abdülmecid II, the last Ottoman caliph, held his caliphal position for a couple of years after the partitioning, but with Mustafa Kemal's secular reforms and the subsequent exile of the royal Osmanoğlu family from the Republic of Turkey in 1924, the caliphal position was abolished.
After the deposition of the last Sultan, Mehmet VI, in 1922, and the subsequent abolition of the Ottoman Caliphate in 1924, members of the Imperial family were forced into exile.

Mecca

MakkahMecca, Saudi ArabiaMakka
Later Selim I, through conquering and unification of Muslim lands, became the defender of the Holy Cities of Mecca and Medina which further strengthened the Ottoman claim to caliphate in the Muslim world.
In 1517, the Sharif, Barakat bin Muhammed, acknowledged the supremacy of the Ottoman Caliph but retained a great degree of local autonomy.

Ottoman dynasty

OttomanSultanHouse of Osman
The Ottoman Caliphate, under the Ottoman dynasty of the Ottoman Empire, was the last Sunni Islamic caliphate of the late medieval and the early modern era.
However, the Ottoman Caliphate too was abolished soon afterwards, and Abdulmejid II was utterly deposed and expelled from Turkey with the rest of the Ottoman dynasty on 3 March 1924.

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

AtatürkMustafa KemalKemal Atatürk
Abdülmecid II, the last Ottoman caliph, held his caliphal position for a couple of years after the partitioning, but with Mustafa Kemal's secular reforms and the subsequent exile of the royal Osmanoğlu family from the Republic of Turkey in 1924, the caliphal position was abolished.
On 3 March 1924, the caliphate was officially abolished and its powers within Turkey were transferred to the GNA.

Caliphate

CaliphcaliphsIslamic Caliphate
The Ottoman Caliphate, under the Ottoman dynasty of the Ottoman Empire, was the last Sunni Islamic caliphate of the late medieval and the early modern era.
In the fourth major caliphate, the Ottoman Caliphate, the rulers of the Ottoman Empire claimed caliphal authority from 1517.

Selim I

Sultan Selim IYavuz Sultan SelimSelim the Grim
Later Selim I, through conquering and unification of Muslim lands, became the defender of the Holy Cities of Mecca and Medina which further strengthened the Ottoman claim to caliphate in the Muslim world.

Abdul Hamid II

Abdülhamid IIAbdulhamid IISultan Abdul Hamid II
Sultan Abdul-Hamid II, who ruled 1876–1909, felt that the Empire's desperate situation could only be remedied through strong and determined leadership.
He adopted a new ideological principle, Pan-Islamism; since Ottoman sultans beginning with 1517 were also nominally Caliphs, he wanted to promote that fact and emphasized the Ottoman Caliphate.

List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire

Ottoman SultanSultanSultan of the Ottoman Empire
Since the 14th century, the caliphate was claimed by the Turkish sultans of the Ottoman Empire starting with Murad I, and they gradually came to be viewed as the de facto leaders and representative of the Islamic world.

Committee of Union and Progress

CUPIttihadistCommittee for Union and Progress
By 1906, the movement enjoyed the support of a significant portion of the army, and its leaders formed the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP), informally known as the Young Turk Party.
While neither of these parties was primarily made up of persons indicted for genocidal activities, they were eventually taken over (or at least exploited) by persons who wished to restore the Ottoman caliphate.

Talaat Pasha

Talat PashaMehmed TalatMehmed Talaat Pasha
For the next five years, the Empire was a one-party state ruled by the CUP under the leadership of Enver Pasha (who returned to Constantinople after having served Turkey abroad in various military and diplomatic capacities since the initial coup), Minister of the Interior Talat Pasha, and Minister of the Navy Cemal Pasha.
Abdülmecid II, the last Caliph of Islam of the Ottoman Dynasty, said: "I refer to those awful massacres. They are the greatest stain that has ever disgraced our nation and race. They were entirely the work of Talat and Enver."

British Raj

British IndiaIndiaBritish rule
The Khilafat movement (1919–1924) was a political campaign launched mainly by Muslims in British controlled India to influence the British government to protect the Caliphate during the aftermath of World War I.
Since the Turkish Sultan, or Khalifah, had also sporadically claimed guardianship of the Islamic holy sites of Mecca, Medina, and Jerusalem, and since the British and their allies were now in conflict with Turkey, doubts began to increase among some Indian Muslims about the "religious neutrality" of the British, doubts that had already surfaced as a result of the reunification of Bengal in 1911, a decision that was seen as ill-disposed to Muslims.

Mehmed VI

Mehmet VIMohamed VISultan Mehmed VI
Sultan Mehmed VI, who was proclaimed Sultan after his brother Mehmed V died of a heart attack in July, agreed to an armistice.

Abdulmejid II

Abdülmecid IIAbdul Mejid IIAbdülmecid
Abdülmecid II, the last Ottoman caliph, held his caliphal position for a couple of years after the partitioning, but with Mustafa Kemal's secular reforms and the subsequent exile of the royal Osmanoğlu family from the Republic of Turkey in 1924, the caliphal position was abolished.

Sunni Islam

SunniSunni MuslimSunni Muslims
The Ottoman Caliphate, under the Ottoman dynasty of the Ottoman Empire, was the last Sunni Islamic caliphate of the late medieval and the early modern era.

Middle Ages

medievalmediaevalmedieval Europe
The Ottoman Caliphate, under the Ottoman dynasty of the Ottoman Empire, was the last Sunni Islamic caliphate of the late medieval and the early modern era.

History of the world

modern historymodern erahuman history
The Ottoman Caliphate, under the Ottoman dynasty of the Ottoman Empire, was the last Sunni Islamic caliphate of the late medieval and the early modern era.

Murad I

Murat ISultan Murad IMurad
Since the 14th century, the caliphate was claimed by the Turkish sultans of the Ottoman Empire starting with Murad I, and they gradually came to be viewed as the de facto leaders and representative of the Islamic world. During the period of Ottoman growth, Ottoman rulers claimed caliphal authority since Murad I's conquest of Edirne in 1362.

Ottoman conquest of Adrianople

AdrianopleBattle of Adrianoplecapture of Adrianople
During the period of Ottoman growth, Ottoman rulers claimed caliphal authority since Murad I's conquest of Edirne in 1362.

Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques

Two Holy MosquesCustodian of the Two Holy CitiesCustodians of the Two Holy Mosques
Later Selim I, through conquering and unification of Muslim lands, became the defender of the Holy Cities of Mecca and Medina which further strengthened the Ottoman claim to caliphate in the Muslim world.

Medina

MadinahMadinaYathrib
Later Selim I, through conquering and unification of Muslim lands, became the defender of the Holy Cities of Mecca and Medina which further strengthened the Ottoman claim to caliphate in the Muslim world.

Western Europe

WesternWestern EuropeanWest European
The demise of the Ottoman Caliphate took place because of a slow erosion of power in relation to Western Europe, and because of the end of the Ottoman state in consequence of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire by the League of Nations mandate.