Ottoman Empire

OttomanOttomansTurksOttoman (Turkish) EmpireTurkishOttoman TurksTurkeyOttoman ruleOttoman periodOttoman era
The Ottoman Empire (, ', literally "The Exalted Ottoman State"; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey''', was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.wikipedia
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Byzantine Empire

ByzantineByzantinesEastern Roman Empire
The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.
It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.

Fall of Constantinople

conquest of Constantinoplesiege of ConstantinopleConstantinople
The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.
The Fall of Constantinople (Ἅλωσις τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως; undefined) was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading Ottoman army on 29 May 1453.

Suleiman the Magnificent

Suleiman ISuleimanSüleyman the Magnificent
During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa.
Suleiman I ( '; Birinci Süleyman, Kanunî Sultan Süleyman or Muhteşem Süleyman; 6 November 1494 – 6 September 1566), commonly known as Suleiman the Magnificent in the West and Kanunî Sultan Süleyman''' ("The Lawgiver Suleiman") in his realm, was the tenth and longest-reigning Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 until his death in 1566.

Osman I

OsmanOsman GaziOsman Bey
It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt (modern-day Bilecik Province) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I.
He and the dynasty bearing his name later established and ruled the nascent Ottoman Empire (then known as the Ottoman Beylik or Emirate).

Vassal and tributary states of the Ottoman Empire

tributary statesVassal state of the Ottoman Empirevassal states
At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous vassal states.
Vassal States were a number of tributary or vassal states, usually on the periphery of the Ottoman Empire under suzerainty of the Porte, over which direct control was not established, for various reasons.

Oghuz Turks

TurkmenOghuzTurkmens
It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt (modern-day Bilecik Province) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I.
The founders of the Ottoman Empire were descendants of the Oghuzes.

Armenian Genocide

ArmeniangenocideArmenians
During this time, atrocities were committed by the Ottoman government against the Armenians, Assyrians and Pontic Greeks.
The Armenian Genocide (Հայոց ցեղասպանություն, Hayots tseghaspanutyun), also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire.

Administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire

eyaletprovinces of the Ottoman Empirevilayets
At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous vassal states.
The administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire were administrative divisions of the state organisation of the Ottoman Empire.

Central Powers

CentralCentral Powerenemy
The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, and thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers.
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; Централни сили), consisting of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria—hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund)—was one of the two main coalitions that fought World War I (1914–18).

Tanzimat

reformsTanzimat periodreform in the Ottoman capital
The Ottomans consequently suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernisation known as the Tanzimat.
The Tanzimât (, see Nizam) was a period of reform in the Ottoman Empire that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876.

Assyrian genocide

AssyrianAssyriansgenocide
During this time, atrocities were committed by the Ottoman government against the Armenians, Assyrians and Pontic Greeks.
The Assyrian genocide (also known as Sayfo or Seyfo, "Sword"; or ܣܝܦܐ) refers to the mass slaughter of the Assyrian population of the Ottoman Empire and those in neighbouring Persia by Ottoman troops during the First World War, in conjunction with the Armenian and Greek genocides.

Allies of World War I

AlliesAlliedAllied Powers
The Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France.
The Allies of World War I or Entente Powers is the term commonly used for the coalition that opposed the Central Powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria during the First World War (1914–1918).

Ottoman decline thesis

declinedeclinedOttoman decline paradigm
While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians.
Donald Quataert, "Ottoman History Writing and Changing Attitudes towards the Notion of 'Decline,'" History Compass 1 (2003) historical narrative which once played a dominant role in the study of the history of the Ottoman Empire. According to the decline thesis, following a golden age associated with the reign of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent (r. 1520–1566), the empire gradually entered into a period of all-encompassing stagnation and decline from which it was never able to recover, lasting until the empire's dissolution in 1923. This thesis was used throughout most of the twentieth century as the basis of both Western and Republican Turkish understanding of Ottoman history. However, by 1978, historians had begun to reexamine the fundamental assumptions of the decline thesis. After the publication of numerous new studies throughout the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s, and the reexamination of Ottoman history through the use of previously untapped sources and methodologies, academic historians of the Ottoman Empire achieved a consensus that the entire notion of Ottoman decline was a myth – that in fact, the Ottoman Empire did not stagnate or decline at all, but rather continued to be a vigorous and dynamic state long after the death of Suleiman the Magnificent. The decline thesis has been criticized as "teleological", "regressive", "Orientalist", "simplistic", and "one-dimensional", and described as "a concept which has no place in historical analysis". Scholars have thus "learned better than to discuss [it]."

Russian Empire

RussiaRussianImperial Russia
However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires.
The rise of the Russian Empire happened in association with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Persia and the Ottoman Empire.

Anatolia

Asia MinorAsiaAnatolian
It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt (modern-day Bilecik Province) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I.
The Turkification of Anatolia began under the Seljuk Empire in the late 11th century and continued under the Ottoman Empire between the late 13th and early 20th centuries.

Greek genocide

GreekGreeksgenocide
During this time, atrocities were committed by the Ottoman government against the Armenians, Assyrians and Pontic Greeks.
It was instigated by the government of the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish national movement against the indigenous Greek population of the Empire and it included massacres, forced deportations involving death marches, summary expulsions, arbitrary execution, and the destruction of Eastern Orthodox cultural, historical, and religious monuments.

World War I

First World WarGreat WarFirst
The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, and thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus, Mesopotamia and the Sinai Peninsula.

Turkish War of Independence

War of IndependenceIndependence WarTurkish Independence War
The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy.
The Turkish War of Independence (Kurtuluş Savaşı "War of Liberation", also known figuratively as İstiklâl Harbi "Independence War" or Millî Mücadele "National Campaign"; 19 May 1919 – 24 July 1923) was fought between the Turkish National Movement and the proxies of the Allies – namely Greece on the Western Front, Armenia on the Eastern, France on the Southern and with them, the United Kingdom and Italy in Constantinople (now Istanbul) – after parts of the Ottoman Empire were occupied and partitioned following the Ottomans' defeat in World War I.

Sykes–Picot Agreement

Sykes PicotSykes-Picot Agreementbilateral agreement
The Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France.
The agreement was based on the premise that the Triple Entente would succeed in defeating the Ottoman Empire during World War I.

History of Istanbul

ConstantinopleIstanbularchaeological sites
With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries.
Constantinople then became the capital of the Ottoman Empire.

History of the Balkans

BalkansancientBalkan history
In the century after the death of Osman I, Ottoman rule began to extend over Anatolia and the Balkans.
The distinct identity and fragmentation of the Balkans owes much to its common and often violent history regarding centuries of Ottoman conquest and to its very mountainous geography.

Partition of the Ottoman Empire

partitioning of the Ottoman Empireregions of the former Ottoman Empirepartitioned
The Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France.
As world war loomed, the Ottoman Empire sought protection but was rejected by Britain, France, and Russia, and finally formed the Ottoman–German Alliance.

Turkey

🇹🇷TurkishTUR
The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy.
During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent the Ottoman Empire encompassed much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa and became a world power.

Orhan

Orhan GaziOrhan Beybelow
Osman's son, Orhan, captured the northwestern Anatolian city of Bursa in 1326, making it the new capital of the Ottoman state and supplanting Byzantine control in the region.
Orhan Gazi (Orhan Gazi) (c. 1281 – March 1362) was the second bey of the nascent Ottoman Sultanate (then known as the Ottoman Beylik or Emirate) from 1323/4 to 1362.

Ottoman Turkish language

Ottoman TurkishTurkishOttoman
In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, (literally "The Supreme Ottoman State") or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti .
Ottoman Turkish (Osmanlı Türkçesi), or the Ottoman language (Ottoman Turkish: لسان عثمانى, lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as تركجه, Türkçe or تركی, Türkî, "Turkish"; Osmanlıca), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire.