Out-of-body experience

out-of-body experiencesout of bodyOut of Body ExperienceAstral journeyspirit travelextracorporealHenrik EhrssonO.B.E.OOBEOOBEs
An out-of-body experience (OBE or sometimes OOBE) is an experience in which a person experiences the world from a location outside their physical body.wikipedia
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Astral projection

astral travelastralastrally project
The term out-of-body experience was introduced in 1943 by G. N. M. Tyrrell in his book Apparitions, and was adopted by researchers such as Celia Green and Robert Monroe as an alternative to belief-centric labels such as "astral projection" or "spirit walking".
Astral projection (or astral travel) is a term used in esotericism to describe an intentional out-of-body experience (OBE) that assumes the existence of a soul or consciousness called an "astral body" that is separate from the physical body and capable of travelling outside it throughout the universe.

Lysergic acid diethylamide

LSDacidLSD-25
* OBEs can be induced by hallucinogens (particularly dissociatives) such as psilocybin, ketamine, DMT, MDA, and LSD.
Users sometimes report out of body experiences.

Sylvan Muldoon

Muldoon
Sylvan Muldoon (1936) embraced the concept of an etheric body to explain the OBE experience.
According to Muldoon, astral projection is an out-of-body experience (OBE) that assumes the existence of an astral body separate from the physical body and is capable of travelling outside it.

Life review

dying people have their lives flash before themhis life flashes before his eyeslife flashing before his eyes
Typically the experience includes such factors as: a sense of being dead; a feeling of peace and painlessness; hearing of various non-physical sounds, an out-of-body experience; a tunnel experience (the sense of moving up or through a narrow passageway); encountering "beings of light" and a God-like figure or similar entities; being given a "life review", and a reluctance to return to life.
Although rare, there are also a few accounts of life reviews or similar experiences without a near-death experience, such as during the simpler out-of-body experience or when under circumstances of intense threat or duress.

Temporoparietal junction

temporo-parietal junctionright temporal parietal junctionrTPJ
In a study review of neurological and neurocognitive data (Bünning and Blanke, 2005) wrote that OBEs are due to "functional disintegration of lower-level multisensory processing and abnormal higher-level self-processing at the temporoparietal junction."
Furthermore, damage to the TPJ has been implicated in having adverse effects on an individual's ability to make moral decisions and has been known to produce out-of-body experiences (OBEs).

Sleep paralysis

Phi Amold haghag ridden
In most of these cases subjects perceive themselves as being awake; about half of them note a feeling of sleep paralysis.
The intruder and incubus hallucinations highly correlate with one another, and moderately correlated with the third hallucination, vestibular-motor disorientation, also known as out-of-body experiences, which differ from the other two in not involving the threat-activated vigilance system.

Celia Green

The term out-of-body experience was introduced in 1943 by G. N. M. Tyrrell in his book Apparitions, and was adopted by researchers such as Celia Green and Robert Monroe as an alternative to belief-centric labels such as "astral projection" or "spirit walking".
In 1968 Green published an analysis of 400 first-hand accounts of out-of-body experiences.

George Nugent Merle Tyrrell

G. N. M. Tyrrell
The term out-of-body experience was introduced in 1943 by G. N. M. Tyrrell in his book Apparitions, and was adopted by researchers such as Celia Green and Robert Monroe as an alternative to belief-centric labels such as "astral projection" or "spirit walking".
Tyrrell created the term out-of-body experience in his book Apparitions.

Autoscopy

HeautoscopyAutoscopeautoscopia
An OBE is a form of autoscopy (literally "seeing self"), although the term autoscopy more commonly refers to the pathological condition of seeing a second self, or doppelgänger.

Susan Blackmore

Sue BlackmoreBlackmore, SusanDr. Susan Blackmore
Susan Blackmore (1978) came to the conclusion that the OBE is a hallucinatory fantasy as it has the characteristics of imaginary perceptions, perceptual distortions and fantasy-like perceptions of the self (such as having no body).
In 1987, Blackmore wrote that she had an out-of-body experience shortly after she began running the Oxford University Society for Psychical Research (OUSPR):

Silver cord

cord-like connection
Carl Sagan (1977) and Barbara Honegger (1983) wrote that the OBE experience may be based on a rebirth fantasy or reliving of the birth process based on reports of tunnel-like passageways and a cord-like connection by some OBErs which they compared to an umbilical cord.
Alfred Ballabene, an astral projector, reported observing that during his out-of-body experiences "glue-like strings" appear as the astral body tries to separate itself from the physical body.

Hypnagogia

hypnagogichypnagogic hallucinationhypnagogic hallucinations
Other scientists have also linked OBEs to cases of hypnagogia and sleep paralysis (cataplexy).
Proprioceptive effects may be noticed, with numbness and changes in perceived body size and proportions, feelings of floating or bobbing as if their bed were a boat, and out-of-body experiences.

Fantasy prone personality

fantasy pronenessfantasy-prone personalityoveractive imagination
The data has shown a link between the OBE experience in some cases to fantasy prone personality (FPP).
They also report out-of-body experiences, and other similar experiences that are interpreted by the some fantasizers as psychic (parapsychological) or mystical.

Parapsychology

parapsychologistparapsychologicalpsychical research
Writers within the fields of parapsychology and occultism have written that OBEs are not psychological and that a soul, spirit or subtle body can detach itself out of the body and visit distant locations.
The Division of Perceptual Studies, a unit at the University of Virginia's Department of Psychiatric Medicine, studies the possibility of survival of consciousness after bodily death, near-death experiences, and out-of-body experiences.

Robert Monroe

Monroe InstituteThe Monroe InstituteSoul retrieval
The term out-of-body experience was introduced in 1943 by G. N. M. Tyrrell in his book Apparitions, and was adopted by researchers such as Celia Green and Robert Monroe as an alternative to belief-centric labels such as "astral projection" or "spirit walking".
His 1971 book Journeys Out of the Body is credited with popularizing the term "out-of-body experience".

Karlis Osis

In the 1970s, Karlis Osis conducted many OBE experiments with the psychic Alex Tanous.
In the 1970s Osis conducted many out-of-body experience (OBE) experiments with the psychic Alex Tanous.

Near-death experience

near death experiencenear-death experiencesnear death experiences
OBEs can be induced by traumatic brain injuries, sensory deprivation, near-death experiences, dissociative and psychedelic drugs, dehydration, sleep disorders and dreaming and electrical stimulation of the brain, among others.
In 1968 Celia Green published an analysis of 400 first-hand accounts of out-of-body experiences.

Chris French

Psychologist Chris French wrote regarding the study "unfortunately, and somewhat atypically, none of the survivors in this sample experienced an OBE."
He has been consulted as an expert on a wide range of such claims including psychic abilities, recovered memory, telepathy, faith healing, past life regression, ghosts, UFO abductions, out-of-body experiences, astrology and so on.

Barry Beyerstein

In 1996, Hayden Ebbern, Sean Mulligan and Barry Beyerstein visited the Medical Center to investigate the story.
In 1968, Beyerstein moved to the San Francisco area to attend UC Berkeley, where "party chit-chat could accept a guest's description of his latest out-of-body experience or the need to have her chakras realigned as casually as one might receive the morning's weather forecast. I frequently found myself the odd man out... (they thought) I was a nice guy, but hopelessly 'linear' and 'left-brained', despite my de rigueur shoulder-length hair, tie-dye T-shirt, bell bottoms and cowboy boots."

Astral body

astralastral formsemotional body
Astral projection is often experienced as the spirit or astral body leaving the physical body to travel in the spirit world or astral plane.
It is widely linked today with out-of-body experiences or astral projection.

Charles Tart

Charles T. TartTart, CharlesTart, Charles T.
In 1968, Charles Tart conducted an OBE experiment with a subject known as Miss Z for four nights in his sleep laboratory.
In 1968, Tart conducted an Out-of-body experience (OBE) experiment with a subject known as Miss Z for four nights in his sleep laboratory.

Sam Parnia

The AWARE Study
In 2001, Sam Parnia and colleagues investigated out of body claims by placing figures on suspended boards facing the ceiling, not visible from the floor.
Out of body claims were tested by placing figures on suspended boards facing the ceiling, not visible from the floor.

Doppelgänger

doppelgangerdoppelgangersdoppelgängers
An OBE is a form of autoscopy (literally "seeing self"), although the term autoscopy more commonly refers to the pathological condition of seeing a second self, or doppelgänger.

Traumatic brain injury

traumatic brain injuriesbrain traumabrain injury
OBEs can be induced by traumatic brain injuries, sensory deprivation, near-death experiences, dissociative and psychedelic drugs, dehydration, sleep disorders and dreaming and electrical stimulation of the brain, among others.

Sensory deprivation

sense deprivationcover his face with his own garmentdeprivation
OBEs can be induced by traumatic brain injuries, sensory deprivation, near-death experiences, dissociative and psychedelic drugs, dehydration, sleep disorders and dreaming and electrical stimulation of the brain, among others.