Ovarian cancer

ovarianovarian carcinomaovaryovarian neoplasmovarian epithelial cancerovariesovarian tumorovarian tumourMalignant neoplasm of ovaryovary cancer
Ovarian cancer is a cancer that forms in or on an ovary.wikipedia
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High-grade serous carcinoma

There are five main subtypes of ovarian carcinoma, of which high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most common.
HGSCs make up the majority of ovarian cancer cases and have the lowest survival rates.

Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

Lynch syndromeHNPCChereditary non-polyposis colon cancer
People with hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (Lynch syndrome), and those with BRCA-1 and BRCA-2 genetic abnormalities are at increased risk. A strong family history of endometrial cancer, colon cancer, or other gastrointestinal cancers may indicate the presence of a syndrome known as hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (also known as Lynch syndrome), which confers a higher risk for developing a number of cancers, including ovarian cancer.
Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) or Lynch syndrome is an autosomal dominant genetic condition that is associated with a high risk of colon cancer as well as other cancers including endometrial cancer (second most common), ovary, stomach, small intestine, hepatobiliary tract, upper urinary tract, brain, and skin.

Cancer

cancersmalignanciescancerous
Ovarian cancer is a cancer that forms in or on an ovary.
Some of these syndromes include: certain inherited mutations in the genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 with a more than 75% risk of breast cancer and ovarian cancer, and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC or Lynch syndrome), which is present in about 3% of people with colorectal cancer, among others.

Endometrial cancer

endometrialendometrial carcinomacancer
A strong family history of endometrial cancer, colon cancer, or other gastrointestinal cancers may indicate the presence of a syndrome known as hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (also known as Lynch syndrome), which confers a higher risk for developing a number of cancers, including ovarian cancer.
This makes it the third most common cause of death in cancers which only affect women, behind ovarian and cervical cancer.

BRCA2

FANCD1breast cancer 2BRCA 2
About 10% of cases are related to inherited genetic risk; women with mutations in the genes BRCA1 or BRCA2 have about a 50% chance of developing the disease.
In addition to breast cancer in men and women, mutations in BRCA2 also lead to an increased risk of ovarian, Fallopian tube, prostate and pancreatic cancer.

Endometriosis

Endomentriosisendometriosis,endometriotic
Hormonal conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome and endometriosis are associated with ovarian cancer, but the link is not completely confirmed.
There is an association between endometriosis and certain types of cancers, notably some types of ovarian cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and brain cancer.

Hormonal contraception

hormonal contraceptivehormonal birth controlhormonal contraceptives
Factors that decrease risk include hormonal birth control, tubal ligation, and breast feeding.

Metastasis

metastaticmetastasesmetastasized
It results in abnormal cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
For example, ovarian tumors can spread transperitoneally to the surface of the liver.

Ovarian mucinous tumor

mucinous ovarian cancermucinous
Smoking tobacco is associated with a higher risk of mucinous ovarian cancer; after smoking cessation, the risk eventually returns to normal.
Mucinous tumors are part of the surface epithelial-stromal tumor group of ovarian neoplasms, and account for approximately 36% of all ovarian tumors.

Hirsutism

increased hair growthhirsuteexcessive hair growth
Other common symptoms include hirsutism, abdominal pain, virilization, and an adnexal mass.

Abdominal distension

abdominal distentiondistensiondistended
The typical symptoms of an LMP tumor can include abdominal distension or pelvic pain.
Abdominal distension can also be a symptom of ovarian cancer.

Sister Mary Joseph nodule

Metastases may cause a Sister Mary Joseph nodule.
Gynecological cancers account for about 1 in 4 cases (primarily ovarian cancer and also uterine cancer).

Beta-catenin

β-cateninCTNNB1B-catenin
Mutations and overexpression of β-catenin are associated with many cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, lung cancer, malignant breast tumors, ovarian and endometrial cancer.

BRCA1

BRCA geneFANCSBABAM1
About 10% of cases are related to inherited genetic risk; women with mutations in the genes BRCA1 or BRCA2 have about a 50% chance of developing the disease.
In addition to breast cancer, mutations in the BRCA1 gene also increase the risk of ovarian and prostate cancers.

Germ cell tumor

germ cell tumorsteratocarcinomagerm cell cancer
Less common types of ovarian cancer include germ cell tumors and sex cord stromal tumors.

Bloating

abdominal bloatingbloatedbloat
The most typical symptoms of ovarian cancer include bloating, abdominal or pelvic pain or discomfort, back pain, irregular menstruation or postmenopausal vaginal bleeding, pain or bleeding after or during sexual intercourse, loss of appetite, fatigue, diarrhea, indigestion, heartburn, constipation, nausea, feeling full, and possibly urinary symptoms (including frequent urination and urgent urination).

Granulosa cell tumour

granulosa cell tumorgranulosa tumorgranulosa-cell tumors
Ollier disease and Maffucci syndrome are associated with granulosa cell tumors in children and may also be associated with Sertoli-Leydig tumors. Sex cord-stromal tumor, including estrogen-producing granulosa cell tumor, the benign thecoma, and virilizing Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor or arrhenoblastoma, accounts for 7% of ovarian cancers.
Although granulosa cells normally occur only in the ovary, granulosa cell tumours occur in both ovaries and testicles (see Ovarian cancer and Testicular cancer).

Combined oral contraceptive pill

birth control pillthe pillbirth control pills
This effect can be achieved by having children, taking combined oral contraceptives, and breast feeding, all of which are protective factors.
COC decreased the risk of ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer, and colorectal cancer.

Breastfeeding

breast feedingbreastfeedbreast-feeding
Factors that decrease risk include hormonal birth control, tubal ligation, and breast feeding. This effect can be achieved by having children, taking combined oral contraceptives, and breast feeding, all of which are protective factors.
For breastfeeding women, long-term health benefits include reduced risk of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and endometrial cancer.

Surface epithelial-stromal tumor

epithelial ovarian cancerovarian adenocarcinomaSurface epithelial-stromal tumour
Surface epithelial-stromal tumour, also known as ovarian epithelial carcinoma, is the most common type of ovarian cancer, representing approximately 90% of ovarian cancers.
Surface epithelial-stromal tumors are a class of ovarian neoplasms that may be benign or malignant.

Penetrance

incomplete penetrancepenetrantvariable penetrance
The gene can be inherited through either the maternal or paternal line, but has variable penetrance.

Fallopian tube

fallopian tubesuterine tubeIsthmus of fallopian tube
These tumors are believed to start in the cells covering the ovaries, though some may form at the Fallopian tubes.
Recent evidence suggests it probably represents a significant portion of what has been classified as ovarian cancer in the past.

Sertoli–Leydig cell tumour

Sertoli-Leydig cell tumorarrhenoblastomaSertoli-Leydig cell tumour
Sex cord-stromal tumor, including estrogen-producing granulosa cell tumor, the benign thecoma, and virilizing Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor or arrhenoblastoma, accounts for 7% of ovarian cancers.
Sertoli–Leydig cell tumour (a sex-cord stromal tumor), is a testostrone-secreting ovarian tumor and is a member of the sex cord-stromal tumour group of ovarian and testicular cancers.

Serous tumour

serous carcinomaserousSerous cancer
Serous cancers that have BRCA mutations also inevitably have p53 mutations, indicating that the removal of both functional genes is important for cancer to develop.
Serous tumours are part of the surface epithelial-stromal tumour group of ovarian neoplasms, which derive from Mullerian epithelium.

Brenner tumour

Brenner tumorbrenner
Less common tumors are malignant Brenner tumor and transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary.
Brenner tumors are an uncommon subtype of the surface epithelial-stromal tumor group of ovarian neoplasms.