Overfishing

overfishedover-fishingfishing pressureoverexploitedover fishingover-exploitedgrowth overfishingover-exploitationoverexploitationoverfish
Overfishing is the removal of a species of fish from a body of water at a rate that the species cannot replenish in time, resulting in those species either becoming depleted or very underpopulated in that given area.wikipedia
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Fishery

fisheriesfishingfishing ground
The ability of a fishery to recover from overfishing depends on whether the ecosystem's conditions are suitable for the recovery.
Overfishing, including the taking of fish beyond sustainable levels, is reducing fish stocks and employment in many world regions.

Tragedy of the commons

The Tragedy of the CommonsComedy of the commonscommon-pool problem
Like other extractive industries such as forestry and hunting, fisheries are susceptible to economic interaction between ownership or stewardship and sustainability, otherwise known as the tragedy of the commons.
Although common resource systems have been known to collapse due to overuse (such as in over-fishing), many examples have existed and still do exist where members of a community with access to a common resource co-operate or regulate to exploit those resources prudently without collapse.

Fishing in the North Sea

North SeaOther areas
Examples of overfishing exist in areas such as the North Sea, the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and the East China Sea.
Sturgeon, shad, rays, skates and salmon among other species were common in the North Sea into the 20th century, when numbers declined due to overfishing.

Orange roughy

Hoplostethus atlanticusdeep sea perch
The trawlers can target orange roughy, grenadiers, or sharks.
Like other slimeheads, orange roughy is slow-growing and late to mature, resulting in a very low resilience which makes them extremely susceptible to overfishing.

Daniel Pauly

Pauly DPauly, DanielD. Pauly
Daniel Pauly, a fisheries scientist known for pioneering work on the human impacts on global fisheries, has commented:
Through the 1990s, Pauly’s work centered on the effects of overfishing.

Tuna

canned tunaThunninituna fish
As a result of overfishing, stocks of some tuna species, such as the southern bluefin tuna, are close to extinction.

Human impact on the environment

anthropogenichuman activityhuman impacts
The environmental impact of fishing can be divided into issues that involve the availability of fish to be caught, such as overfishing, sustainable fisheries, and fisheries management; and issues that involve the impact of fishing on other elements of the environment, such as by-catch and destruction of habitat such as coral reefs.

Atlantic cod

codNorthern CodCod, Atlantic
* The collapse of the cod fishery off Newfoundland, and the 1992 decision by Canada to impose an indefinite moratorium on the Grand Banks, is a dramatic example of the consequences of overfishing.
Overfishing cod removed a significant predatory pressure on other Atlantic fish and crustacean species.

Fisheries management

fishery managementmanagementfisheries
According to a 2008 UN report, the world's fishing fleets are losing US$50 billion each year through depleted stocks and poor fisheries management.
Governmental resource protection-based fisheries management is a relatively new idea, first developed for North European fisheries after the first Overfishing Conference held in London in 1936.

Human overpopulation

overpopulationexpanding human populationoverpopulated
The report asserts that expanding human land use for agriculture and overfishing are the main causes of this decline.

Peruvian anchoveta

anchovetaEngraulis ringensanchovies
* The Peruvian coastal anchovy fisheries crashed in the 1970s after overfishing and an El Niño season largely depleted anchovies from its waters.
After a period of plenty in the late 1960s, the population was greatly reduced by overfishing and the 1972 El Niño event, when warm water drifted over the cold Humboldt Current and lowered the depth of the thermocline.

Sustainability

sustainableenvironmental sustainabilityunsustainable
Like other extractive industries such as forestry and hunting, fisheries are susceptible to economic interaction between ownership or stewardship and sustainability, otherwise known as the tragedy of the commons.
The sustainable seafood movement has gained momentum as more people become aware of both overfishing and environmentally destructive fishing methods.

Resource depletion

depletiondepleteddepletion of natural resources
Overfishing can occur in water bodies of any sizes, such as ponds, rivers, lakes or oceans, and can result in resource depletion, reduced biological growth rates and low biomass levels.

Depensation

Critical depensation
Sustained overfishing can lead to critical depensation, where the fish population is no longer able to sustain itself.

Atlantic Ocean

AtlanticNorth AtlanticNorth Atlantic Ocean
In particular, the overfishing of the western Atlantic Ocean from the earliest days of European colonisation of the Americas has been well documented.
Overfishing in the area was recognised as early as the 1960s but, because this was occurring on international waters, it took until the late 1970s before any attempts to regulate was made.

Ecosystem

ecosystemsenvironmenteco-system
The ability of a fishery to recover from overfishing depends on whether the ecosystem's conditions are suitable for the recovery.
For aquatic ecosystems threats include also unsustainable exploitation of marine resources (for example overfishing of certain species), marine pollution, microplastics pollution, water pollution, the warming of oceans, and building on coastal areas.

Grand Banks of Newfoundland

Grand BanksNewfoundland BanksGreat Banks
Examples of overfishing exist in areas such as the North Sea, the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and the East China Sea. * The collapse of the cod fishery off Newfoundland, and the 1992 decision by Canada to impose an indefinite moratorium on the Grand Banks, is a dramatic example of the consequences of overfishing.
Technological advances in fishing (such as using large factory-ships and sonar), as well as geopolitical disputes over territorial sea and exclusive economic zone (EEZ) boundaries, led to overfishing and a serious decline in the fish stocks of the Grand Banks from around 1990.

Overexploitation

over-exploitationoverexploitedoverharvesting
In the context of fishing, the term overfishing can be used instead of overexploitation, as can overgrazing in stock management, overlogging in forest management, overdrafting in aquifer management, and endangered species in species monitoring.

Fish stock

stocksfish stocksstock
Overfishing has stripped many fisheries around the world of their stocks.

Population dynamics of fisheries

fishing effortpopulation dynamicsfisheries population dynamics
A recruit is an individual that makes it to maturity, or into the limits specified by a fishery, which are usually size or age.
The notion of overfishing hinges on what is meant by an acceptable level of fishing.

Magnuson–Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act

Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management ActMagnuson-Stevens ActMagnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act of 1976
Individual transferable quotas (ITQs) are fishery rationalization instruments defined under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act as limited access permits to harvest quantities of fish.
The NMFS has implemented the Fish Stock Sustainability Index (FSSI), which measures key stocks according to their overfishing status and biomass levels.

Environmental impact of fishing

Environmental effects of fishingFishingenvironmental impacts of fisheries
Sustainable seafood is a movement that has gained momentum as more people become aware of overfishing and environmentally destructive fishing methods.
The environmental impact of fishing includes issues such as the availability of fish, overfishing, fisheries, and fisheries management; as well as the impact of fishing on other elements of the environment, such as by-catch.

Jellyfish

medusamedusaejelly fish
Massive growth of jellyfish populations threaten fish stocks, as they compete with fish for food, eat fish eggs, and poison or swarm fish, and can survive in oxygen depleted environments where fish cannot; they wreak massive havoc on commercial fisheries.
Jellyfish populations may be expanding globally as a result of land runoff and overfishing of their natural predators.

Deep sea fish

deep-sea fishdeep seadeep-sea
The slow reproduction of these fish – they reach sexual maturity at about the same age as human beings – is one of the main reasons that they cannot recover from the excessive fishing.

Fishing fleet

fleetfisheries fleetFishing Fleets
The report, produced jointly by the World Bank and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), asserts that half the world's fishing fleet could be scrapped with no change in catch.
Fishermen operating a particular type of vessel or in a particular port often belong to a local association which disseminates information and may be used to coordinate activities, such as how best to prevent overfishing in particular areas.