Overseas Chinese

ChineseChinese diasporaChinese immigrantsethnic ChineseChinese descentChinese communityoverseasoverseas communitiesChinese peoplediaspora
Overseas Chinese are people of ethnic Chinese birth or descent who reside outside the territories of Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan.wikipedia
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Han Chinese

HanChineseHan people
Overseas Chinese are people of ethnic Chinese birth or descent who reside outside the territories of Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan.
This gave rise to a term commonly used nowadays by overseas Chinese as an ethnic identity for the Chinese diaspora – Huaren (, "the Chinese people"), Huaqiao (, "the Chinese immigrant" meaning overseas Chinese) as well as a literary name for China – Zhonghua (, "the central Chinese").

Hakka people

HakkaHakkasHakka Chinese
Overseas Chinese who are ethnically Han Chinese, such as Cantonese, Hoochew, Hokkien, Hakka or Teochew refer to themselves as undefined (Tángrén), pronounced tòhng yàn in Cantonese, toung ning in Hoochew, Tn̂g-lâng in Hokkien and tong nyin in Hakka.
The Hakka people have had significant influence on the course of modern Chinese and overseas Chinese history; in particular, they have been a source of many government and military leaders -- in 1984, over half of the Standing Committee of the Politburo were ethnically Hakka.

Cantonese

Cantonese languageCantonese ChineseStandard Cantonese
Overseas Chinese who are ethnically Han Chinese, such as Cantonese, Hoochew, Hokkien, Hakka or Teochew refer to themselves as undefined (Tángrén), pronounced tòhng yàn in Cantonese, toung ning in Hoochew, Tn̂g-lâng in Hokkien and tong nyin in Hakka. The general trend is that more established Chinese populations in the Western world and in many regions of Asia have Cantonese as either the dominant variety or as a common community vernacular, while Mandarin is much more prevalent among new arrivals, making it increasingly common in many Chinatowns.
Cantonese is viewed as a vital and inseparable part of the cultural identity for its native speakers across large swaths of Southeastern China, Hong Kong, and Macau, as well as in overseas communities.

Hakka Chinese

HakkaHakka languageHakka dialect
Overseas Chinese who are ethnically Han Chinese, such as Cantonese, Hoochew, Hokkien, Hakka or Teochew refer to themselves as undefined (Tángrén), pronounced tòhng yàn in Cantonese, toung ning in Hoochew, Tn̂g-lâng in Hokkien and tong nyin in Hakka.
Hakka is one of the major groups of varieties of Chinese, spoken natively by the Hakka people throughout southern China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau and throughout the diaspora areas of East Asia, Southeast Asia, and in overseas Chinese communities around the world.

Cantonese people

CantoneseCantonese immigrantsCanton
Overseas Chinese who are ethnically Han Chinese, such as Cantonese, Hoochew, Hokkien, Hakka or Teochew refer to themselves as undefined (Tángrén), pronounced tòhng yàn in Cantonese, toung ning in Hoochew, Tn̂g-lâng in Hokkien and tong nyin in Hakka.
Up until the second half of the 20th century, the majority of overseas Chinese emigrated from two provinces of China; Guangdong and Fujian.

Overseas Chinese Affairs Office

Overseas Chinese Affairs Office of the State CouncilOffice of Overseas Chinese Affairs
The Overseas Chinese Affairs Office of the PRC does not distinguish between Han and ethnic minority populations for official policy purposes.
The Overseas Chinese Affairs Office of the State Council (OCAO) is the administrative office under the State Council of the People's Republic of China responsible for liaising with overseas Chinese residing abroad or returning to China.

Pearl River Delta

Pearl River estuaryPearl RiverPearl River Basin
Some overseas Chinese were sold to South America during the Punti-Hakka Clan Wars (1855–1867) in the Pearl River Delta in Guangdong.
Today, much of the Chinese diaspora in the US, Canada, Australia, Latin America, and much of Southeast Asia traces their ancestry to the west side of this region.

Guangdong

Guangdong ProvinceCantonKwangtung
Under the administration of the Republic of China from 1911 to 1949, these rules were abolished and many migrated outside the Republic of China, mostly through the coastal regions via the ports of Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan and Shanghai.
The two special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macao fall within the scope of Guangdong cultural influence, and Guangdong culture still has profound influences on the Chinese in Singapore and Malaysia.

Bamboo network

business networksSoutheast Asia
The Chinese business community of Southeast Asia, known as the bamboo network, has a prominent role in the region's private sectors.
The Bamboo network is connections between businesses operated by the overseas Chinese community in Southeast Asia.

Filipino mestizo

mestizomestizosmestiza
The emergence of the Mestizo class would later rise to the noble Principalia class, which later carried over and fueled the elite ruling classes of the American era and later sovereign Philippines.
Chinese Filipinos are one of the largest overseas Chinese communities in Southeast Asia.

Chinese Filipino

ChineseChinese-FilipinoFilipino-Chinese
Since the 1860s, most Chinese immigrants of the contemporary Chinese Filipinos have come from Fujian and thus form the bulk of the contemporary mixed and unmixed Chinese Filipinos and Filipinos of partial Chinese ancestry.
Chinese Filipinos are one of the largest overseas Chinese communities in Southeast Asia.

Emigration

emigratedemigrateemigrant
Hence, emigrants from Suriname and Indonesia were shorter than some Chinese prisoners who used to live in the U.S. and Australia.
Likewise, millions left South China in the Chinese diaspora during the 19th and early 20th centuries.

Hoa people

Hoaethnic ChineseChinese
There are also great similarities between Vietnamese and Chinese traditions such as the use Lunar New Year, philosophy such as Confucianism, Taoism and ancestor worship; leads to some Hoa people adopt easily to Vietnamese culture, however many Hoa still prefer to maintain Chinese cultural background.
The Hoa (Hua 華 in Mandarin Chinese, literally "Chinese") are a minority group living in Vietnam consisting of persons considered ethnic and racially overseas Han Chinese ("Overseas Chinese").

Southern Min

Min NanHokkienMinnan
Overseas Chinese who are ethnically Han Chinese, such as Cantonese, Hoochew, Hokkien, Hakka or Teochew refer to themselves as undefined (Tángrén), pronounced tòhng yàn in Cantonese, toung ning in Hoochew, Tn̂g-lâng in Hokkien and tong nyin in Hakka.
The Minnan dialects are also spoken by descendants of emigrants from these areas in diaspora, most notably the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and New York City.

Sun Yat-sen

Sun YatsenDr. Sun Yat-senSun Zhongshan
During the 1950s and 1960s, the ROC tended to seek the support of overseas Chinese communities through branches of the Kuomintang based on Sun Yat-sen's use of expatriate Chinese communities to raise money for his revolution.
Sun's notability and popularity extends beyond the Greater China region, particularly to Nanyang (Southeast Asia), where a large concentration of overseas Chinese resided in Malaya (Malaysia and Singapore).

World on Fire (book)

World on FireWorld on Fire: How Exporting Free Market Democracy Breeds Ethnic Hatred and Global Instabilitymarket-dominant minority
The book [[World on Fire: How Exporting Free Market Democracy Breeds Ethnic Hatred and Global Instability|World on Fire]], describing the Chinese as a "market-dominant minority", notes that "Chinese market dominance and intense resentment amongst the indigenous majority is characteristic of virtually every country in Southeast Asia except Thailand and Singapore".
According to Chua, she gives examples of the concept what she calls ethnic market-dominant minorities such as the Overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia; European diasporas throughout Latin America and Africa; Israeli Jews in Israel and the Middle East; Russian Jewish Oligarchs in post-Communist Russia; Croats in the former Yugoslavia; Overseas Indians in East Africa, Overseas Lebanese in West Africa and Mexico, and the Yoruba, Igbos, Kikuyus, Tutsis in Nigeria, Cameroon, and Rwanda.

Chinese South Africans

ChineseChinese communitySouth African Chinese
Chinese South Africans are overseas Chinese who reside in South Africa, including those whose ancestors came to South Africa in the early 20th century until Chinese immigration was banned under the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1904, Taiwanese industrialists who arrived in the 1970s, 1980s and early 1990s, and post-apartheid immigrants to South Africa (predominantly from mainland China), who now outnumber locally-born Chinese South Africans.

Economy of China

Chinese economyChinaChinese financial system
Chinese emigrants are estimated to control US$2 trillion in liquid assets and have considerable amounts of wealth to stimulate economic power in China.
Remittances by overseas Chinese are managed by the Bank of China (BOC), which has a number of branch offices in several countries.

Southeast Asia

South East AsiaSouth-East AsiaSoutheast Asian
Many nationals of the Republic of China fled and settled down in South East Asia mainly between the years 1911–1949, after the Nationalist government led by Kuomintang lost to the Communist Party of China in the Chinese Civil War in 1949.
The overseas Chinese community has played a large role in the development of the economies in the region.

Confucianism

ConfucianConfucianistConfucian philosophy
There are also great similarities between Vietnamese and Chinese traditions such as the use Lunar New Year, philosophy such as Confucianism, Taoism and ancestor worship; leads to some Hoa people adopt easily to Vietnamese culture, however many Hoa still prefer to maintain Chinese cultural background.
Today, it has been credited for shaping East Asian societies and Chinese communities, and to some extent, other parts of Asia.

Zheng He

Cheng HoAdmiral Zheng HeAdmiral Cheng Ho
One of the migrations dates back to the Ming dynasty when Zheng He (1371–1435) became the envoy of Ming.
Among the Chinese diaspora in Southeast Asia, Zheng He became a figure of folk veneration.

Chinese people in Madagascar

ChineseChinaChinese expatriates
Chinese people in Madagascar (undefined) are a minority ethnic group of Madagascar and form Africa's third largest overseas Chinese population with a population estimated at between 70,000 to 100,000 in 2011.

Mandarin Chinese

MandarinChineseMandarin dialects
The general trend is that more established Chinese populations in the Western world and in many regions of Asia have Cantonese as either the dominant variety or as a common community vernacular, while Mandarin is much more prevalent among new arrivals, making it increasingly common in many Chinatowns.
It is also one of the most frequently used varieties of Chinese among Chinese diaspora communities internationally and the most commonly taught Chinese variety.

Hainan

Hainan IslandHainan ProvinceHainan, China
Under the administration of the Republic of China from 1911 to 1949, these rules were abolished and many migrated outside the Republic of China, mostly through the coastal regions via the ports of Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan and Shanghai.
In the early 20th century Chinese emigrants returning from then British Malaya, introduced rubber trees to the island; after 1950, state farms were developed, and Hainan now produces a substantial amount of China's rubber.

Bandung Conference

Asian–African ConferenceAsian-African ConferenceAsia-Africa Conference
During this period, the People's Republic of China tended to view overseas Chinese with suspicion as possible capitalist infiltrators and tended to value relationships with Southeast Asian nations as more important than gaining support of overseas Chinese, and in the Bandung declaration explicitly stated that overseas Chinese owed primary loyalty to their home nation.
Later in the conference, Zhou Enlai signed on to the article in the concluding declaration stating that overseas Chinese owed primary loyalty to their home nation, rather than to China – a highly sensitive issue for both his Indonesian hosts and for several other participating countries.