Owen Roberts

Owen J. RobertsOwen Josephus RobertsJustice RobertsRobertsJustice Owen Roberts
Owen Josephus Roberts (May 2, 1875 – May 17, 1955) was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court from 1930 to 1945.wikipedia
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Roberts Commissions

Roberts CommissionAmerican Commission for the Protection and Salvage of Artistic and Historic Monuments in War Areasattack on Pearl Harbor
He also led two Roberts Commissions, the first of which investigated the attack on Pearl Harbor, and the second of which focused on works of cultural value during World War II.
Both were chaired by Supreme Court Justice Owen Josephus Roberts.

Charles Evans Hughes

Charles E. HughesHughesCharles Hughes
Along with Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes, Roberts's vote often decided whether President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal legislation would be upheld. On the Court, Roberts was a swing vote between those, led by Justices Louis Brandeis, Benjamin Cardozo, and Harlan Fiske Stone, as well as Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes, who would allow a broader interpretation of the Commerce Clause to allow Congress to pass New Deal legislation that would provide for a more active federal role in the national economy, and the Four Horsemen (Justices James Clark McReynolds, Pierce Butler, George Sutherland, and Willis Van Devanter) who favored a narrower interpretation of the Commerce Clause and believed that the Fourteenth Amendment Due Process Clause protected a strong "liberty of contract."
Along with Associate Justice Owen Roberts, Hughes emerged as a key swing vote on the bench, positioned between the liberal Three Musketeers and the conservative Four Horsemen.

Herbert Hoover Supreme Court candidates

nominated
The Senate rejected Parker and Hoover quickly nominated Roberts as his second choice for the vacancy.
During his only term in office, President Herbert Hoover appointed three members of the Supreme Court of the United States: Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes, and Associate Justices Owen Roberts and Benjamin Cardozo.

The switch in time that saved nine

switch in time that saved nine1937changed its interpretation of the Constitution
His decision to uphold the constitutionality of a state minimum wage law in West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish has been called "the switch in time that saved nine."
"The switch in time that saved nine" is the name given to what was perceived as the sudden jurisprudential shift by Associate Justice Owen Roberts of the U.S. Supreme Court in the 1937 case West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish.

Hughes Court

On the Hughes Court, Roberts was a swing vote positioned between the conservative Four Horsemen and the liberal Three Musketeers.
Associate Justice Edward Terry Sanford died less than a month after Hughes's confirmation as Chief Justice, and was succeeded by Justice Owen Roberts in May 1930, after the Senate rejected President Herbert Hoover's first nominee, John J. Parker.

University of Pennsylvania Law School

University of Pennsylvania School of LawUniversity of PennsylvaniaPenn Law School
Born in Philadelphia, Roberts graduated from the University of Pennsylvania Law School and pursued a legal career.
Among them are Owen Roberts (US Supreme Court Justice), James Harry Covington (Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia), Daniel John Layton (Chief Justice of the Delaware Supreme Court), Robert Nelson Cornelius Nix, Jr., Horace Stern and George Sharswood (Chief Justices of the Pennsylvania Supreme Court), and Deborah Tobias Poritz (Chief Justice of the New Jersey Supreme Court).

Korematsu v. United States

KorematsuKorematsu v. U.S.Korematsu vs. United States
He was one of three Justices to vote against Roosevelt's orders for Japanese American internment camps in Korematsu v. United States as well as the lone judge to dissent in the case of Smith v. Allwright, which ruled white primaries unconstitutional.
Dissenting justices Frank Murphy, Robert H. Jackson, and Owen J. Roberts all criticized the exclusion as racially discriminatory; Murphy wrote that the exclusion of Japanese "falls into the ugly abyss of racism" and resembled "the abhorrent and despicable treatment of minority groups by the dictatorial tyrannies which this nation is now pledged to destroy."

Stone Court (judges)

Stone Court
His relations with his colleagues on the Stone Court became strained and he retired in 1945.
At the beginning of Stone's chief-justiceship, the Court consisted of Stone, Owen Roberts, Hugo Black, Stanley F. Reed, Felix Frankfurter, William O. Douglas, Frank Murphy, James F. Byrnes, and Robert H. Jackson (the latter two joined the court days after Stone's elevation to Chief Justice).

Four Horsemen (Supreme Court)

Four Horsemenfour conservative justicesThe Four Horsemen
On the Hughes Court, Roberts was a swing vote positioned between the conservative Four Horsemen and the liberal Three Musketeers. On the Court, Roberts was a swing vote between those, led by Justices Louis Brandeis, Benjamin Cardozo, and Harlan Fiske Stone, as well as Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes, who would allow a broader interpretation of the Commerce Clause to allow Congress to pass New Deal legislation that would provide for a more active federal role in the national economy, and the Four Horsemen (Justices James Clark McReynolds, Pierce Butler, George Sutherland, and Willis Van Devanter) who favored a narrower interpretation of the Commerce Clause and believed that the Fourteenth Amendment Due Process Clause protected a strong "liberty of contract."
Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes and Justice Owen J. Roberts controlled the balance.

The Daily Pennsylvanian

Daily Pennsylvanian34th Street Magazinestudent newspaper
Roberts was born in Philadelphia and attended Germantown Academy and the University of Pennsylvania, where he was elected to the Phi Beta Kappa Society and was the editor of The Daily Pennsylvanian.

Judicial Procedures Reform Bill of 1937

Judiciary Reorganization Bill of 1937court-packing plancourt packing
That term references the decision's possible role in the defeat of the Judicial Procedures Reform Bill of 1937, which would have expanded the Supreme Court and thus allowed Roosevelt to appoint Justices more sympathetic to his policies.
The 5–4 ruling was the result of the apparently sudden jurisprudential shift by Associate Justice Owen Roberts, who joined with the wing of the bench supportive to the New Deal legislation.

Three Musketeers (Supreme Court)

Three Musketeersthree liberal justicesThe Three Musketeers
On the Hughes Court, Roberts was a swing vote positioned between the conservative Four Horsemen and the liberal Three Musketeers.
Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes and Justice Owen J. Roberts controlled the balance.

John J. Parker

John Johnston ParkerJohn Parker
After the death of Associate Justice Edward Terry Sanford in March 1930, President Hoover nominated John J. Parker to fill the vacancy on the court. Roberts was appointed to the Supreme Court by Herbert Hoover after Hoover's nomination of John J. Parker was defeated by the Senate.
After the Senate rejected Parker's nomination, President Hoover nominated Owen Roberts to the seat, and the Senate voted to confirm Roberts on May 20, 1930.

Edward Terry Sanford

Edward T. SanfordEdward SanfordEd Sanford
After the death of Associate Justice Edward Terry Sanford in March 1930, President Hoover nominated John J. Parker to fill the vacancy on the court.

West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish

West Coast Hotel v. Parrish1937 in the U.S.landmark minimum wage case
His decision to uphold the constitutionality of a state minimum wage law in West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish has been called "the switch in time that saved nine."
Associate Justice Owen J. Roberts's decision to join the majority in upholding the law after having favored striking down a state minimum wage law in another case has occasionally been referred to as "the switch in time that saved nine" because it occurred during the debate over the Judicial Procedures Reform Bill of 1937.

Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives program

Monuments MenMonuments, Fine Arts, and ArchivesMonuments, Fine Arts and Archives
The second Roberts Commission was established in 1943 to consolidate earlier efforts on a national basis with the US Army to help protect monuments, fine arts, and archives in war zones.
Commonly referred to as the Roberts Commission after its chairman, Supreme Court Justice Owen J. Roberts, the group was charged with promoting the preservation of cultural properties in war areas, including the European, Mediterranean, and Far Eastern Theaters of Operations, providing that this mission did not interfere with military operations.

Charles Louis McKeehan

Charles L. McKeehan
On March 1, 1912, Roberts and fellow Philadelphia lawyers William W. Montgomery, Jr. and Charles L. McKeehan, founded the law firm Roberts, Montgomery & McKeehan, the predecessor of the law firm Montgomery, McCracken, Walker & Rhoads, LLP.
On March 1, 1912, he, along with William W. Montgomery and future United States Supreme Court Justice Owen J. Roberts, founded Roberts, Montgomery & McKeehan, the predecessor of the law firm Montgomery, McCracken, Walker & Rhoads, LLP.

University of Pennsylvania

PennThe University of PennsylvaniaPennsylvania
Roberts was born in Philadelphia and attended Germantown Academy and the University of Pennsylvania, where he was elected to the Phi Beta Kappa Society and was the editor of The Daily Pennsylvanian.
It has produced three United States Supreme Court justices, William J. Brennan, Owen J. Roberts and James Wilson, Supreme Court justices of foreign states (e.g., Ronald Wilson of the High Court of Australia and Ayala Procaccia of the Israel Supreme Court), European Court of Human Rights judge Nona Tsotsoria, Irish Court of Appeal justice Gerard Hogan and founders of international law firms, e.g. James Harry Covington (co-founder of Covington & Burling), Martin Lipton (co-founder of Wachtell, Lipton, Rosen, & Katz) and George Wharton Pepper (U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania and founder of Pepper Hamilton).

Germantown Academy

GermantownGermantown Academy (PA)Germantown Academy Patriots
Roberts was born in Philadelphia and attended Germantown Academy and the University of Pennsylvania, where he was elected to the Phi Beta Kappa Society and was the editor of The Daily Pennsylvanian.
Roberts is named for Supreme Court Justice Owen J. Roberts, a member of the class of 1890.

Commerce Clause

interstate commerceInterstate Commerce Clauseinterstate
On the Court, Roberts was a swing vote between those, led by Justices Louis Brandeis, Benjamin Cardozo, and Harlan Fiske Stone, as well as Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes, who would allow a broader interpretation of the Commerce Clause to allow Congress to pass New Deal legislation that would provide for a more active federal role in the national economy, and the Four Horsemen (Justices James Clark McReynolds, Pierce Butler, George Sutherland, and Willis Van Devanter) who favored a narrower interpretation of the Commerce Clause and believed that the Fourteenth Amendment Due Process Clause protected a strong "liberty of contract."
However, in what became known as "the switch in time that saved nine", shortly after the "court packing" plan was proposed, Justice Owen Roberts joined the 5-4 majority opinion in West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish (1937).

United Nations Parliamentary Assembly

Dublin DeclarationUN Parliamentary AssemblyWorld Parliament
While in retirement Roberts, along with Robert P. Bass, convened the Dublin Declaration, a plan to change the U.N. General Assembly into a world legislature with "limited but definite and adequate power for the prevention of war."
On 16 October 1945, before the UN Charter had even entered into force, retired U.S. Supreme Court Justice Owen J. Roberts and former New Hampshire Governor Robert P. Bass held a conference in Dublin, New Hampshire, which passed the Dublin Declaration.

Nazi plunder

Nazi lootlooted by the NazisNazi looting
Roberts also played a key role in the creation of the OSS Art Looting Investigation Unit (ALIU) which investigated and documented Nazi plunder networks in Europe.
On November 21, 1944, at the request of Owen Roberts, William J. Donovan created the Art Looting Investigation Unit (ALIU) within the OSS to collect information on the looting, confiscation and transfer of cultural objects by Nazi Germany, its allies and the various individuals and organizations involved; to prosecute war criminals and to restitute property.

Unsuccessful nominations to the Supreme Court of the United States

defeateddefeated nomineefailed nominations
Roberts was appointed to the Supreme Court by Herbert Hoover after Hoover's nomination of John J. Parker was defeated by the Senate.
Hoover's second nominee, Owen J. Roberts, was confirmed by the Senate.

Nebbia v. New York

While Roberts is often accused of inconsistency in his jurisprudential stance towards the New Deal, legal scholars note that he had previously argued for a broad interpretation of government power in the 1934 case of Nebbia v. New York, and so his later vote in Parrish was not a complete reversal.
Justice Owen J. Roberts delivered the majority opinion.

Harold Hitz Burton

Harold H. BurtonHarold BurtonBurton
After the retirement of Associate Justice Owen J. Roberts, President Harry S. Truman successfully nominated Burton to the Supreme Court.