Oxide

oxidesmetal oxideOtransition metal oxidesmetal oxidestransition metal oxidedioxidetransition-metal oxidesMetal-oxideO 3
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.wikipedia
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Oxygen

OO 2 molecular oxygen
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula. Metal oxides thus typically contain an anion of oxygen in the oxidation state of −2.
It is a member of the chalcogen group in the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds.

Corrosion

corrosion resistancecorrodecorrosive
For example, aluminium foil develops a thin skin of Al 2 O 3 (called a passivation layer) that protects the foil from further corrosion.
Corrosion is a natural process that converts a refined metal into a more chemically-stable form such as oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.

Anodizing

anodizedanodized aluminumanodised
The aluminum oxide layer can be built to greater thickness by the process of electrolytic anodizing.
Anodising (also spelled anodizing in American English) is an electrolytic passivation process used to increase the thickness of the natural oxide layer on the surface of metal parts.

Passivation (chemistry)

passivationsurface passivationpassivating
For example, aluminium foil develops a thin skin of Al 2 O 3 (called a passivation layer) that protects the foil from further corrosion.
The inert surface layer, termed the "native oxide layer", is usually an oxide or a nitride, with a thickness of a monolayer of 0.1-0.3 nm (1-3 Å) for a noble metal such as platinum, about 1.5 nm (15 Å) for silicon, and nearer to 5 nm (50 Å) for aluminium after several years.

Gold(III) oxide

Gold trioxideAu 2 O 3 gold
Noble metals (such as gold or platinum) are prized because they resist direct chemical combination with oxygen, and substances like gold(III) oxide must be generated by indirect routes.
Gold(III) oxide (Au 2 O 3 ) is the most stable oxide of gold.

Metal

metalsmetal ionsmetal ion
Metal oxides thus typically contain an anion of oxygen in the oxidation state of −2.
Most will react with oxygen in the air to form oxides over various timescales (potassium burns in seconds while iron rusts over years).

Magnesium oxide

magnesiaMgOmagnesia alba
This includes sodium oxide, potassium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, and aluminium oxide.
Magnesium oxide (MgO), or magnesia, is a white hygroscopic solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium (see also oxide).

Polyoxometalate

polyoxometallateDawson structurePolyoxometalates
Many oxyanions are known, such as polyphosphates and polyoxometalates.
Two broad families are recognized, isopolymetalates, composed of only one kind of metal and oxide, and heteropolymetalates, composed of one metal, oxide, and a main group oxyanion (phosphate, silicate, etc.).

Osmium tetroxide

OsO 4 Osmic acidOsmium tetraoxide
The more common examples: ruthenium tetroxide, osmium tetroxide, and xenon tetroxide.
The osmium atom has eight valence electrons (6s 2, 5d 6 ) with double bonds to the four oxide ligands resulting in a 16 electron complex.

Non-stoichiometric compound

non-stoichiometricnonstoichiometricnonstoichiometric compound
The formulas are often deceptively simple where many are nonstoichiometric compounds.
Nonstoichiometry is pervasive for metal oxides, especially when the metal is not in its highest oxidation state.

Potassium oxide

K 2 Opotassium ioxidePotassium monoxide
This includes sodium oxide, potassium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, and aluminium oxide.
Potassium oxide (KO) or Kalium oxide is an ionic compound of potassium and oxygen.

Iron(III) oxide

ferric oxideFe 2 O 3 iron oxide
In some cases these are distinguished by specifying the number of atoms as in carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, and in other cases by specifying the element's oxidation number, as in iron(II) oxide and iron(III) oxide.
It is one of the three main oxides of iron, the other two being iron(II) oxide (FeO), which is rare; and iron(II,III) oxide (Fe 3 O 4 ), which also occurs naturally as the mineral magnetite.

Ionic compound

ionicionic solidionic crystals
It is the conjugate base of the hydroxide ion, OH − and is encountered in ionic solids such as calcium oxide.
Ionic compounds containing hydrogen ions (H + ) are classified as acids, and those containing basic ions hydroxide (OH − ) or oxide (O 2− ) are classified as bases.

Peroxide

peroxidesperoxyO 2
Special types of oxides are peroxide, O 2 2−, and superoxide, O 2 −.
In contrast to oxide ions, the oxygen atoms in the peroxide ion have an oxidation state of −1.

Copper(I) oxide

cuprous oxidecopper oxideCu 2 O
One exception is copper, for which the highest oxidation state oxide is copper(II) oxide and not copper(I) oxide.
Copper(I) oxide or cuprous oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Cu 2 O. It is one of the principal oxides of copper, the other being CuO or cupric oxide.

Metalloid

metalloidsMetallicmetalloid staircase
Metals tend to form basic oxides, non-metals tend to form acidic oxides, and amphoteric oxides are formed by elements near the boundary between metals and non-metals (metalloids).
Chemically, they mostly behave as (weak) nonmetals, have intermediate ionization energies and electronegativity values, and amphoteric or weakly acidic oxides.

Redox

oxidationoxidizedreduction
The reductive dissolution of a transition metal oxide occurs when dissolution is coupled to a redox event.
The word reduction originally referred to the loss in weight upon heating a metallic ore such as a metal oxide to extract the metal.

Base (chemistry)

basebasicbases
Oxides typically react with acids or bases, sometimes both.
Metal oxides, hydroxides, and especially alkoxides are basic, and conjugate bases of weak acids are weak bases.

Amphoterism

amphotericamphiproticampholyte
Oxides that react with both are amphoteric.
Metal oxides which react with both acids as well as bases to produce salts and water are known as amphoteric oxides.

Copper(II) oxide

copper oxidecupric oxideCuO
One exception is copper, for which the highest oxidation state oxide is copper(II) oxide and not copper(I) oxide. For example, zinc is more reactive than copper, so it displaces copper (II) oxide to form zinc oxide:
A black solid, it is one of the two stable oxides of copper, the other being Cu 2 O or cuprous oxide.

Oxyacid

oxoacid2-oxo acid2-oxoacid
They are called "acid anhydrides"; adding water, they form oxoacids.
In most cases, such anhydrides are oxides of nonmetals.

Solid-propellant rocket

solid-fuel rocketSolidsolid rocket
Consequently, they are often used in solid-fuel rockets.
The addition of metal fuels (such as aluminium) can increase the performance (around 250 s), though metal oxide nucleation in the exhaust can turn the smoke opaque.

Silicon dioxide

silicasiliceousSiO 2
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.

Rust

rustingferruginouscorrosion
Rust is an iron oxide, a usually red oxide formed by the redox reaction of iron and oxygen in the presence of water or air moisture.

Water

H 2 OHOliquid water
O 2− is unstable in aqueous solution − its affinity for H + is so great (pK b ~ −38) that it abstracts a proton from a solvent H 2 O molecule:
Many inorganic substances are insoluble too, including most metal oxides, sulfides, and silicates.