Oxycodone

OxyContinEukodalRoxicodoneEndoneEukodolpain killersPercodanDihydrohydrooxycodeinoneeucodalOxecta
Oxycodone, sold under brand name OxyContin among others, is an opioid medication used for treatment of moderate to severe pain.wikipedia
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Opioid

opioidsopioid-induced constipationopioid analgesic
Oxycodone, sold under brand name OxyContin among others, is an opioid medication used for treatment of moderate to severe pain. The approved uses is for relief of cancer pain, trauma pain, or pain due to major surgery, in children already treated with opioids, who can tolerate at least 20 mg per day of oxycodone; this provides an alternative to Duragesic (fentanyl), the only other extended-release opioid analgesic approved for children.
Other opioids are semi-synthetic and synthetic drugs such as hydrocodone, oxycodone and fentanyl; antagonist drugs such as naloxone; and endogenous peptides such as the endorphins.

Analgesic

analgesiaanalgesicspainkillers
The approved uses is for relief of cancer pain, trauma pain, or pain due to major surgery, in children already treated with opioids, who can tolerate at least 20 mg per day of oxycodone; this provides an alternative to Duragesic (fentanyl), the only other extended-release opioid analgesic approved for children.
Analgesics include paracetamol (known in North America as acetaminophen or simply APAP), the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as the salicylates, and opioid drugs such as morphine and oxycodone.

Purdue Pharma

Purdue Pharma Canada
A July 1996 study independent of Purdue Pharma, the drug's originator, found the controlled-release formulation had a variable duration of action ranging from 10–12 hours.
In 2007, it paid out one of the largest fines ever levied against a pharmaceutical firm for mislabeling its product OxyContin, and three executives were found guilty of criminal charges.

Oxycodone/naloxone

Targincombination with naloxone
A number of abuse-deterrent formulations are available, such as in combination with naloxone.
The oxycodone component is an opioid and is responsible for the pain-relieving effects.

Hypoventilation

respiratory depressiondecreased effort to breathedecreased breathing
Severe side effects may include addiction, respiratory depression (a decreased effort to breathe), and low blood pressure. Serious side effects of oxycodone include reduced sensitivity to pain (beyond the pain the drug is taken to reduce), euphoria, anxiolysis, feelings of relaxation, and respiratory depression.

Fentanyl

ActiqDuragesicfentanyl citrate
The approved uses is for relief of cancer pain, trauma pain, or pain due to major surgery, in children already treated with opioids, who can tolerate at least 20 mg per day of oxycodone; this provides an alternative to Duragesic (fentanyl), the only other extended-release opioid analgesic approved for children.
Under normal circumstances, the patch will reach its full effect within 12 to 24 hours; thus, fentanyl patches are often prescribed with a fast-acting opioid (such as morphine or oxycodone) to handle breakthrough pain.

Codeine

codeine phosphatecodeine hydrochlorideCod'ine
Those allergic to codeine may also be allergic to oxycodone.
Codeine has been used in the past as the starting material and prototype of a large class of mainly mild to moderately strong opioids; such as hydrocodone (1920 in Germany), oxycodone (1916 in Germany), dihydrocodeine (1908 in Germany), and its derivatives such as nicocodeine (1956 in Austria).

Heroin

diamorphinediacetylmorphinesmack
In 2011, it was the leading cause of drug-related deaths in the U.S. However, from 2012 onwards, heroin and fentanyl have become more common causes of drug-related deaths.
When compared to the opioids hydromorphone, fentanyl, oxycodone, and pethidine (meperidine), former addicts showed a strong preference for heroin and morphine, suggesting that heroin and morphine are particularly susceptible to abuse and addiction.

Thebaine

thebaïne
Oxycodone was first made in Germany in 1916 from thebaine.
While thebaine is not used therapeutically, it is the main alkaloid extracted from Papaver bracteatum (Iranian opium / Persian poppy) and can be converted industrially into a variety of compounds, including hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone, oxymorphone, nalbuphine, naloxone, naltrexone, buprenorphine and etorphine.

Somnolence

drowsinesssleepinessDrowsy
Common side effects of oxycodone include constipation (23%), nausea (23%), vomiting (12%), somnolence (23%), dizziness (13%), itching (13%), dry mouth (6%), and sweating (5%).

CYP2D6

2D6cytochrome P450 2D6cytochrome p-450 cyp2d6
Oxycodone is metabolized by the enzymes CYP3A4 and CYP2D6, and its clearance therefore can be altered by inhibitors and inducers of these enzymes, increasing and decreasing half-life, respectively.

Hydromorphone

DilaudidPalladonedihydromorphinone
A 2006 review found that controlled-release oxycodone is comparable to immediate-release oxycodone, morphine, and hydromorphone in management of moderate to severe cancer pain, with fewer side effects than morphine.

Insomnia

trouble sleepingsleeplessnessdifficulty sleeping
The symptoms of oxycodone withdrawal, as with other opioids, may include "anxiety, panic attack, nausea, insomnia, muscle pain, muscle weakness, fevers, and other flu-like symptoms".
Opioid medications such as hydrocodone, oxycodone, and morphine are used for insomnia that is associated with pain due to their analgesic properties and hypnotic effects.

Paracetamol

acetaminophenPanadolTylenol PM
Combination products are also available with paracetamol (acetaminophen) or aspirin.
Paracetamol is also combined with other opioids such as dihydrocodeine, referred to as co-dydramol (BAN), oxycodone or hydrocodone.

Hydrocodone

TussionexHycodandihydrocodeinone
It is also similar to hydrocodone, differing only in that it has a hydroxyl group at carbon-14.
In one study comparing the potency of hydrocodone to that of oxycodone, it was found that it took 50% more hydrocodone to achieve the same degree of miosis (pupillary contraction).

Euphoria

euphoriceuphorianthigh
Serious side effects of oxycodone include reduced sensitivity to pain (beyond the pain the drug is taken to reduce), euphoria, anxiolysis, feelings of relaxation, and respiratory depression.
µ-Opioid receptor agonists are a set of euphoriants that include drugs such as heroin, morphine, codeine, oxycodone, and fentanyl.

Noroxycodone

Oxymorphone possesses 3- to 5-fold higher affinity for the MOR than does oxycodone, while noroxycodone and noroxymorphone possess one-third of and 3-fold higher affinity for the MOR, respectively, and MOR activation is 5- to 10-fold less with noroxycodone but 2-fold higher with noroxymorphone relative to oxycodone.
Noroxycodone is the major metabolite of the opioid analgesic oxycodone.

Ritonavir

NorvirNorvir (ritonavir)ritonovir
Ritonavir or lopinavir/ritonavir greatly increase plasma concentrations of oxycodone in healthy human volunteers due to inhibition of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6.

Noroxymorphone

Oxymorphone possesses 3- to 5-fold higher affinity for the MOR than does oxycodone, while noroxycodone and noroxymorphone possess one-third of and 3-fold higher affinity for the MOR, respectively, and MOR activation is 5- to 10-fold less with noroxycodone but 2-fold higher with noroxymorphone relative to oxycodone.
Noroxymorphone is an opioid which is both a metabolite of oxymorphone and oxycodone and is manufactured specifically as an intermediate in the production of narcotic antagonists such as naltrexone and others.

Anorexia (symptom)

anorexialoss of appetitedecreased appetite
Less common side effects (experienced by less than 5% of patients) include loss of appetite, nervousness, abdominal pain, diarrhea, urine retention, dyspnea, and hiccups.

Equianalgesic

Opioid comparisoncompares weakly to other opiatesequivalent in analgesic effect
Taken orally, 20 mg of immediate-release oxycodone is considered to be equivalent in analgesic effect to 30 mg of morphine, while extended release oxycodone is considered to be twice as potent as oral morphine.

Opioid use disorder

heroin addictionopioid addictionheroin addict
Opioid withdrawal may occur if rapidly stopped.
Opioids include substances such as heroin, morphine, fentanyl, codeine, oxycodone, and hydrocodone.

Periaqueductal gray

periaqueductal greyperiaqueductal gray mattercentral gray
Opioids like oxycodone are thought to produce their analgesic effects via activation of the MOR in the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) and rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM).
These drugs include morphine, heroin (diacetylmorphine), pethidine, hydrocodone, oxycodone, and similar pain-reducing compounds.

Oxymorphone

oxymorphone hydrochlorideOpanaNumorphan
Oxymorphone possesses 3- to 5-fold higher affinity for the MOR than does oxycodone, while noroxycodone and noroxymorphone possess one-third of and 3-fold higher affinity for the MOR, respectively, and MOR activation is 5- to 10-fold less with noroxycodone but 2-fold higher with noroxymorphone relative to oxycodone.
German patents from the mid-1930s indicate that oxymorphone as well as hydromorphone, hydrocodone, oxycodone, and acetylmorphone can be prepared—without the need for hydrogen gas—from solutions of codeine, morphine, and dionine by refluxing an acidic aqueous solution, or the precursor drug dissolved in ethanol, in the presence of certain metals, namely palladium and platinum in fine powder or colloidal form or platinum black.

Controlled Drugs and Substances Act

Schedule IVSchedule ISchedule 1
Oxycodone is a controlled substance under Schedule I of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA).