Oxygen

OO 2 molecular oxygenaerobicO 3 O 4 dioxygenOxyactive oxygenO2
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.wikipedia
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Chemical element

elementelementschemical elements
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
A chemical element is a species of atom having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z). For example, the atomic number of oxygen is 8, so the element oxygen consists of all atoms which have exactly 8 protons.

Chalcogen

group 1616chalcogens
It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds.
This group is also known as the oxygen family. It consists of the elements oxygen (O), sulfur (S), selenium (Se), tellurium (Te), and the radioactive element polonium (Po).

Oxide

oxidesmetal oxideO
It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.

Nonmetal

non-metalnonmetalsnon-metallic
It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds.
The elements generally classified as nonmetals include one element in group 1 (hydrogen); one in group 14 (carbon); two in group 15 (nitrogen and phosphorus); three in group 16 (oxygen, sulfur and selenium); most of group 17 (fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine); and all of group 18 (with the possible exception of oganesson).

Abundance of the chemical elements

abundanceabundancesabundant
By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium.
For example, the abundance of oxygen in pure water can be measured in two ways: the mass fraction is about 89%, because that is the fraction of water's mass which is oxygen.

Allotropes of oxygen

dioxygenmolecular oxygenatomic oxygen
At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula. Another form (allotrope) of oxygen, ozone, strongly absorbs ultraviolet UVB radiation and the high-altitude ozone layer helps protect the biosphere from ultraviolet radiation.
The most familiar is molecular oxygen (O 2 ), present at significant levels in Earth's atmosphere and also known as dioxygen or triplet oxygen.

Carbohydrate

carbohydratessaccharidecomplex carbohydrates
Dioxygen is used in cellular respiration and many major classes of organic molecules in living organisms contain oxygen, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and fats, as do the major constituent inorganic compounds of animal shells, teeth, and bone.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water) and thus with the empirical formula C m (H 2 O) n (where m may be different from n). This formula holds true for monosaccharides.

Water

H 2 Oliquid wateraqueous
Most of the mass of living organisms is oxygen as a component of water, the major constituent of lifeforms.
Its chemical formula is H 2 O, meaning that each of its molecules contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms, connected by covalent bonds.

Ozone

ozonationO 3 ozone generator
Another form (allotrope) of oxygen, ozone, strongly absorbs ultraviolet UVB radiation and the high-altitude ozone layer helps protect the biosphere from ultraviolet radiation.
It is an allotrope of oxygen that is much less stable than the diatomic allotrope, breaking down in the lower atmosphere to ( dioxygen).

Diatomic molecule

diatomicdiatomic moleculesdi-
At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula.
If a diatomic molecule consists of two atoms of the same element, such as hydrogen (H 2 ) or oxygen (O 2 ), then it is said to be homonuclear.

Gas

gasesgaseousg
At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula.
A pure gas may be made up of individual atoms (e.g. a noble gas like neon), elemental molecules made from one type of atom (e.g. oxygen), or compound molecules made from a variety of atoms (e.g. carbon dioxide).

Photosynthesis

photosyntheticphotosynthesizephotosynthesizing
Oxygen is continuously replenished in Earth's atmosphere by photosynthesis, which uses the energy of sunlight to produce oxygen from water and carbon dioxide.
In most cases, oxygen is also released as a waste product.

Carl Wilhelm Scheele

ScheeleC. W. ScheeleCarl Scheele
Oxygen was isolated by Michael Sendivogius before 1604, but it is commonly believed that the element was discovered independently by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, in Uppsala, in 1773 or earlier, and Joseph Priestley in Wiltshire, in 1774.
For example, Scheele discovered oxygen (although Joseph Priestley published his findings first), and identified molybdenum, tungsten, barium, hydrogen, and chlorine before Humphry Davy, among others.

Joseph Priestley

PriestleyDr Joseph PriestleyPriestly
Oxygen was isolated by Michael Sendivogius before 1604, but it is commonly believed that the element was discovered independently by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, in Uppsala, in 1773 or earlier, and Joseph Priestley in Wiltshire, in 1774.
He has historically been credited with the discovery of oxygen, having isolated it in its gaseous state, although Carl Wilhelm Scheele and Antoine Lavoisier also have strong claims to the discovery.

Oxygen therapy

oxygensupplemental oxygenOxygen Administration
Common uses of oxygen include production of steel, plastics and textiles, brazing, welding and cutting of steels and other metals, rocket propellant, oxygen therapy, and life support systems in aircraft, submarines, spaceflight and diving.
Oxygen therapy, also known as supplemental oxygen, is the use of oxygen as a medical treatment.

Periodic table

periodic table of elementsperiodic table of the elementsperiodic system
It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds.
Columns (groups) are determined by the electron configuration of the atom; elements with the same number of electrons in a particular subshell fall into the same columns (e.g. oxygen and selenium are in the same column because they both have four electrons in the outermost p-subshell).

Antoine Lavoisier

LavoisierAntoine-Laurent de LavoisierAntoine-Laurent Lavoisier
The name oxygen was coined in 1777 by Antoine Lavoisier, who first recognized oxygen as a chemical element and correctly characterized the role it plays in combustion.
Lavoisier is most noted for his discovery of the role oxygen plays in combustion.

Combustion

burningignitionincomplete combustion
One of the first known experiments on the relationship between combustion and air was conducted by the 2nd century BCE Greek writer on mechanics, Philo of Byzantium.
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.

Chemical compound

compoundcompoundschemical compounds
It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds.
For example, water is composed of two hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atom: the chemical formula is H 2 O. Many chemical compounds have a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS): its CAS number.

Helium

Hesuperfluid heliumhelium II
By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium.
Ramsay was looking for argon but, after separating nitrogen and oxygen from the gas liberated by sulfuric acid, he noticed a bright yellow line that matched the D 3 line observed in the spectrum of the Sun.

Cellular respiration

respirationaerobic respirationaerobic
Dioxygen is used in cellular respiration and many major classes of organic molecules in living organisms contain oxygen, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and fats, as do the major constituent inorganic compounds of animal shells, teeth, and bone.
Nutrients that are commonly used by animal and plant cells in respiration include sugar, amino acids and fatty acids, and the most common oxidizing agent (electron acceptor) is molecular oxygen (O 2 ).

Plastic

plasticsadditivesynthetic plastic
The vast majority of these polymers are formed from chains of carbon atoms, 'pure' or with the addition of: oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur.

Sendivogius

Michael SendivogiusMichał SędziwójAlchemik Sędziwój
Oxygen was isolated by Michael Sendivogius before 1604, but it is commonly believed that the element was discovered independently by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, in Uppsala, in 1773 or earlier, and Joseph Priestley in Wiltshire, in 1774.
He discovered that air is not a single substance and contains a life-giving substance-later called oxygen, 170 years before Scheele's discovery of the element.

Corrosion

corrosion resistancecorrodecorrosive
This may have been in part due to the prevalence of the philosophy of combustion and corrosion called the phlogiston theory, which was then the favored explanation of those processes.
In the most common use of the word, this means electrochemical oxidation of metal in reaction with an oxidant such as oxygen or sulfates.

Hydrogen

HH 2 hydrogen gas
By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium.
Hydrogen can form compounds with elements that are more electronegative, such as halogens (e.g., F, Cl, Br, I), or oxygen; in these compounds hydrogen takes on a partial positive charge.