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Oxygen

OO 2 molecular oxygen
It is an allotrope of oxygen that is much less stable than the diatomic allotrope, breaking down in the lower atmosphere to (dioxygen).
Another form (allotrope) of oxygen, ozone, strongly absorbs ultraviolet UVB radiation and the high-altitude ozone layer helps protect the biosphere from ultraviolet radiation.

Allotropes of oxygen

dioxygenmolecular oxygenatomic oxygen
It is an allotrope of oxygen that is much less stable than the diatomic allotrope, breaking down in the lower atmosphere to (dioxygen). Ozone is a powerful oxidant (far more so than dioxygen) and has many industrial and consumer applications related to oxidation.
The common allotrope of elemental oxygen on Earth, is generally known as oxygen, but may be called dioxygen, diatomic oxygen, molecular oxygen, or oxygen gas to distinguish it from the element itself and from the triatomic allotrope ozone,.

Ozone layer

stratospheric ozoneozoneozone shield
It is present in very low concentrations throughout the latter, with its highest concentration high in the ozone layer of the stratosphere, which absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation.
It contains high concentration of ozone (O 3 ) in relation to other parts of the atmosphere, although still small in relation to other gases in the stratosphere.

Allotropy

allotropeallotropesallotropic
It is an allotrope of oxygen that is much less stable than the diatomic allotrope, breaking down in the lower atmosphere to (dioxygen).
For some elements, allotropes have different molecular formulae despite difference in phase; for example, two allotropes of oxygen (dioxygen, O 2, and ozone, O 3 ) can both exist in the solid, liquid and gaseous states.

Disinfectant

disinfectiondisinfectantsdisinfect
During World War I, ozone was tested at Queen Alexandra Military Hospital in London as a possible disinfectant for wounds.
In wastewater treatment, a disinfection step with chlorine, ultra-violet (UV) radiation or ozonation can be included as tertiary treatment to remove pathogens from wastewater, for example if it is to be reused to irrigate golf courses.

Christian Friedrich Schönbein

Christian SchönbeinChristian Friedrich SchonbeinChristian Schonbein
A half century later, Christian Friedrich Schönbein noticed the same pungent odour and recognized it as the smell often following a bolt of lightning.
Christian Friedrich Schönbein HFRSE(18 October 1799 – 29 August 1868) was a German-Swiss chemist who is best known for inventing the fuel cell (1838) at the same time as William Robert Grove and his discoveries of guncotton and ozone.

Trioxidane

dihydrogen trioxidehydrogen trioxidetrioxide
In appropriate contexts, ozone can be viewed as trioxidane with two hydrogen atoms removed, and as such, trioxidanylidene may be used as a context-specific systematic name, according to substitutive nomenclature.
In biological systems, however, ozone is known to be generated from singlet oxygen, and the presumed mechanism is an antibody-catalyzed production of trioxidane from singlet oxygen.

Oxidizing agent

oxidizeroxidantoxidants
Ozone is a powerful oxidant (far more so than dioxygen) and has many industrial and consumer applications related to oxidation.

Atmosphere of Earth

airEarth's atmosphereatmosphere
Ozone is formed from dioxygen by the action of ultraviolet light (UV) and electrical discharges within the Earth's atmosphere.

Ozonolysis

Harries ozonide reactionozonizedozonolysis reaction
Alkenes can be oxidatively cleaved by ozone, in a process called ozonolysis, giving alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acids, depending on the second step of the workup.
Ozonolysis is an organic reaction where the unsaturated bonds of alkenes, alkynes, or azo compounds are cleaved with ozone.

Nitrogen dioxide

NO 2 NO2Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)
Ozone also oxidizes nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide:
Unlike ozone, O 3, the ground electronic state of nitrogen dioxide is a doublet state, since nitrogen has one unpaired electron, which decreases the alpha effect compared with nitrite and creates a weak bonding interaction with the oxygen lone pairs.

Ozonide

dioxygenylozonide ionozonizing
Reduction of ozone gives the ozonide anion, O. Derivatives of this anion are explosive and must be stored at cryogenic temperatures.
Ozonide is the unstable, reactive polyatomic anion analog of ozone or any of several classes of organic peroxide compounds similar formed by the reaction of ozone with an unsaturated compound.

Ozone depletion

ozone holeozone layer depletionozone-depleting
The concern over the health effects of the decline led to the 1987 Montreal Protocol, the ban on the production of many ozone depleting chemicals and in the first and second decade of the 21st Century the beginning of the recovery of stratospheric ozone concentrations.
Ozone depletion consists of two related events observed since the late 1970s: a steady lowering of about four percent in the total amount of ozone in Earth's atmosphere (the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth's polar regions.

Greenhouse gas

greenhouse gasescarbon emissionsgreenhouse gas emissions
The symmetric stretch and bend are weak absorbers, but the antisymmetric stretch is strong and responsible for ozone being an important minor greenhouse gas.
The primary greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere are water vapor (H 2 O), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O), and ozone (O 3 ).

Dobson unit

The standard way to express total ozone levels (the amount of ozone in a given vertical column) in the atmosphere is by using Dobson units.
It originated, and continues to be primarily used in respect to, atmospheric ozone, whose total column amount, usually termed "total ozone", and sometimes "column abundance", is dominated by the high concentrations of ozone in the stratospheric ozone layer.

Lightning

lightning boltlightning strikelightning strikes
A half century later, Christian Friedrich Schönbein noticed the same pungent odour and recognized it as the smell often following a bolt of lightning.
Consequently, a lightning strike observed at a very close distance will be accompanied by a sudden clap of thunder, with almost no perceptible time lapse, possibly accompanied by the smell of ozone (O 3 ).

Ozone–oxygen cycle

ozone-oxygen cycleChapman cyclecontinuously regenerated
The process of ozone creation and destruction is called the Chapman cycle and starts with the photolysis of molecular oxygen
The ozone–oxygen cycle is the process by which ozone is continually regenerated in Earth's stratosphere, converting ultraviolet radiation (UV) into heat.

Smog

photochemical smogair quality remediation effortssummer smog
Ozone reacts directly with some hydrocarbons such as aldehydes and thus begins their removal from the air, but the products are themselves key components of smog.
This kind of visible air pollution is composed of nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, ozone, smoke and other particulates.

Dipole

dipole momentdipolarmolecular dipole moment
Ozone is a polar molecule with a dipole moment of 0.53 D.

Water

H 2 OHOliquid water
According to experimental evidence from microwave spectroscopy, ozone is a bent molecule, with C 2v symmetry (similar to the water molecule).
Water for bathing may be maintained in satisfactory microbiological condition using chemical disinfectants such as chlorine or ozone or by the use of ultraviolet light.

Stratosphere

stratospheric100K feetatmosphere
It is present in very low concentrations throughout the latter, with its highest concentration high in the ozone layer of the stratosphere, which absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation.
The QBO induces a secondary circulation that is important for the global stratospheric transport of tracers, such as ozone or water vapor.

Ozone cracking

attackedcrackedcracking
Ozone cracking used to be a serious problem in car tires, for example, but it is not an issue with modern tires.
Cracks can be formed in many different elastomers by ozone attack, and the characteristic form of attack of vulnerable rubbers is known as ozone cracking.

Resonance (chemistry)

resonanceresonance structureresonance structures
The molecule can be represented as a resonance hybrid with two contributing structures, each with a single bond on one side and double bond on the other.
The ozone molecule is represented by two contributing structures.

Jacques-Louis Soret

J.-L. Soret
The formula for ozone, O 3, was not determined until 1865 by Jacques-Louis Soret and confirmed by Schönbein in 1867.
Soret was also responsible for correctly working out the chemical composition of ozone as being three oxygen atoms bound together.

Tropospheric ozone

ground-level ozoneground level ozoneozone
Ground-level ozone pollution (tropospheric ozone) is created near the Earth's surface by the action of daylight UV rays on these precursors.
Ozone (O 3 ) is a trace gas of the troposphere, with an average concentration of 20-30 parts per billion by volume (ppbv), with close to 100 ppbv in polluted areas.