Pāṇini

PaniniAshtadhyayiAṣṭādhyāyīAstadhyayiGanapathaPaninianVālmīkivyākaranamDhatupathaPāniniAchariya Pāṇini
(, variously dated between ; and "6th to 5th century BCE") was an ancient Sanskrit philologist, grammarian, and a revered scholar in ancient India.wikipedia
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Linguistics

linguistlinguisticlinguists
Considered "the father of linguistics", after the discovery and publication of Pāṇini's work by European scholars in the nineteenth century, his influence on aspects of the development of modern linguists is widely recognized in the profession; his grammar was influential on foundational scholars such as Ferdinand de Saussure and Leonard Bloomfield. Pāṇini is known for his text Aṣṭādhyāyī, a sutra-style treatise on Sanskrit grammar, 3,959 "verses" or rules on linguistics, syntax and semantics in "eight chapters" which is the foundational text of the Vyākaraṇa branch of the Vedanga, the auxiliary scholarly disciplines of the Vedic period.
The earliest activities in the documentation and description of language have been attributed to the 6th-century-BC Indian grammarian Pāṇini who wrote a formal description of the Sanskrit language in his .

Sanskrit

Sanskrit languageClassical SanskritSkt.
(, variously dated between ; and "6th to 5th century BCE") was an ancient Sanskrit philologist, grammarian, and a revered scholar in ancient India.
A more refined and standardized grammatical form called Classical Sanskrit emerged in the mid-1st millennium BCE with the Aṣṭādhyāyī treatise of Pāṇini.

Sanskrit grammar

grammarSanskritSanskrit phonology
Pāṇini is known for his text Aṣṭādhyāyī, a sutra-style treatise on Sanskrit grammar, 3,959 "verses" or rules on linguistics, syntax and semantics in "eight chapters" which is the foundational text of the Vyākaraṇa branch of the Vedanga, the auxiliary scholarly disciplines of the Vedic period.
It was studied and codified by Sanskrit grammarians from the later Vedic period (roughly 8th century BCE), culminating in the Pāṇinian grammar of the 6th century BCE.

Syntax

syntacticsyntacticalsyntactically
Pāṇini is known for his text Aṣṭādhyāyī, a sutra-style treatise on Sanskrit grammar, 3,959 "verses" or rules on linguistics, syntax and semantics in "eight chapters" which is the foundational text of the Vyākaraṇa branch of the Vedanga, the auxiliary scholarly disciplines of the Vedic period.
The Aṣṭādhyāyī of Pāṇini (c.

Mahābhāṣya

MahabhashyaMahabhasyaMahābhāsya
His aphoristic text attracted numerous bhashya (commentaries), of which Patanjali's Mahābhāṣya is the most famous in Hindu traditions.
The (महाभाष्य, great commentary), attributed to Patañjali, is a commentary on selected rules of Sanskrit grammar from 's treatise, the Ashtadhyayi, as well as Kātyāyana's Varttika, an elaboration of Pāṇini's grammar.

Lipi

LipīLipi''' (writing system)
It is not certain whether Pāṇini used writing for the composition of his work, though it is generally agreed that he knew of a form of writing, based on references to words such as lipi ("script") and lipikara ("scribe") in section 3.2 of the Aṣṭādhyāyī.
Section 3.2.21 of Pāṇini's Astadhyayi, composed before mid 4th century BCE, for example, mentions lipi in the context of a writing script.

Yāska

YaskaYasaka
According to Kamal K. Misra, Pāṇini also refers to Yaska, "whose writings date back to the middle of the 4th century B.C."
Preceding Pāṇini (4th c. BCE.), he is traditionally identified as the author of Nirukta, the discipline of "etymology" (explanation of words) within Sanskrit grammatical tradition.

Rambhadracharya

Jagadguru RambhadracharyaJagadguru RāmabhadrācāryaSwami Rambhadracharya
Rambhadracharya suggests that the name of his father was Paṇina, from which the name Pāṇini could be grammatically derived.
He has authored more than 100 books and 50 papers, including four epic poems, Hindi commentaries on Tulsidas' Ramcharitmanas and Hanuman Chalisa, a Sanskrit commentary in verse on the Ashtadhyayi, and Sanskrit commentaries on the Prasthanatrayi scriptures.

Salatura

Shalatula
Pāṇini likely lived in Shalatula in ancient Gandhara in the northwest Indian subcontinent, during the Mahajanapada era. This means Panini lived in Salatura of ancient Gandhara, which likely was near Lahor, a town at the junction of Indus and Kabul rivers, which falls in the Swabi District of modern Pakistan.
Śalātura was the birthplace of the Sanskrit grammarian Pāṇini who is considered to the oldest grammarian whose work has come down to modern times.

Kashyapa

KashyapKasyapaKaśyapa
According to Sumitra Mangesh Katre, the ten Vedic scholar names he quotes are of Apisali, Kashyapa, Gargya, Galava, Cakravarmana, Bharadvaja, Sakatayana, Sakalya, Senaka and Sphotayana.
His name appears in Patanjali's ancient bhasya on verse 1.2.64 of Pāṇini.

Morphology (linguistics)

morphologymorphologicalmorphologically
Pāṇini's theory of morphological analysis was more advanced than any equivalent Western theory before the 20th century. The system thus established is extremely detailed as to shiksha (phonology, including accent) and vyakarana (morphology).
The history of morphological analysis dates back to the ancient Indian linguist Pāṇini, who formulated the 3,959 rules of Sanskrit morphology in the text Aṣṭādhyāyī by using a constituency grammar.

Vedic period

VedicVedic civilizationVedic age
Pāṇini is known for his text Aṣṭādhyāyī, a sutra-style treatise on Sanskrit grammar, 3,959 "verses" or rules on linguistics, syntax and semantics in "eight chapters" which is the foundational text of the Vyākaraṇa branch of the Vedanga, the auxiliary scholarly disciplines of the Vedic period.
The grammar of Pāṇini marks a final apex in the codification of Sutra texts, and at the same time the beginning of Classical Sanskrit.

Gandhara

GandhāraGandharanGandahara
Pāṇini likely lived in Shalatula in ancient Gandhara in the northwest Indian subcontinent, during the Mahajanapada era. This means Panini lived in Salatura of ancient Gandhara, which likely was near Lahor, a town at the junction of Indus and Kabul rivers, which falls in the Swabi District of modern Pakistan. According to Hartmut Scharfe, Pāṇini lived in Gandhara close to the borders of the Achaemenid Empire, and Gandhara was then an Achaemenian satrapy following the Achaemenid conquest of the Indus Valley.
Panini has mentioned both the Vedic form of Sanskrit as well as what seems to be Gandhari, a later form of Sanskrit, in his Ashtadhyayi.

Backus–Naur form

BNFBackus-Naur formBNF grammar
A consequence of his grammar's focus on brevity is its highly unintuitive structure, reminiscent of modern notations such as the "Backus–Naur form".
The idea of describing the structure of language using rewriting rules can be traced back to at least the work of Pāṇini (ancient Indian Sanskrit grammarian and a revered scholar in Hinduism who lived sometime between the 7th and 4th century BCE).

Vṛddhi

vrddhivriddhivṛddhi derivation

Yona

YavanaYavanasGreeks
The occurrence of the word [[Yona|]] in 4.1.49, referring to a writing (lipi) c.q. cuneiform writing, or to Greek writing, suggests a date for Pāṇini after Alexander the Great.
The Yavanas are mentionned by the grammarian Pāṇini, probably in reference to their writing.

Guṇa

gunaGunascharacteristics
In verse VI.36 of Nirukta by Yāska, a 1st millennium BC text on Sanskrit grammar and language that preceded Panini, Guṇa is declared to be derived from another root Gaṇa, which means "to count, enumerate".

Patanjali

PatañjaliPathanjaliMaharishi Patanjali
His aphoristic text attracted numerous bhashya (commentaries), of which Patanjali's Mahābhāṣya is the most famous in Hindu traditions.

Vyākaraṇa

VyakaranaSanskritistSanskrit grammarian
Pāṇini is known for his text Aṣṭādhyāyī, a sutra-style treatise on Sanskrit grammar, 3,959 "verses" or rules on linguistics, syntax and semantics in "eight chapters" which is the foundational text of the Vyākaraṇa branch of the Vedanga, the auxiliary scholarly disciplines of the Vedic period. The system thus established is extremely detailed as to shiksha (phonology, including accent) and vyakarana (morphology).
Pāṇini and Yāska are the two celebrated ancient scholars of Vyākaraṇa; both are dated to several centuries prior to the start of the common era, with Pāṇini likely from the fifth century BCE.

Indo-European ablaut

ablautzero-gradezero grade
However, the phenomenon of the Indo-European ablaut itself was first recorded more than 2000 years earlier by the Sanskrit grammarians and was codified by Pāṇini in his Ashtadhyayi, where the terms [[guṇa|]] and [[vṛddhi|]] were used to describe the phenomena now known respectively as the full grade and lengthened grade.

Lahor

This means Panini lived in Salatura of ancient Gandhara, which likely was near Lahor, a town at the junction of Indus and Kabul rivers, which falls in the Swabi District of modern Pakistan.
Historians believe that a town called Salatura existed in the vicinity, where the Sanskrit grammarian Panini probably lived.

Bhaṭṭikāvya

BhattikavyaBhattiBhatti’s Poem
This grammar of had been the object of intense study for the ten centuries prior to the composition of the Bhaṭṭikāvya.
It focuses on two deeply rooted Sanskrit traditions, the Ramayana and Panini's grammar, while incorporating numerous other traditions, in a rich mix of science and art, poetically retelling the adventures of Rama and a compendium of examples of grammar and rhetoric.

Shiksha

Sikshaakṣaragrammatical tradition
It complements the Vedic ancillary sciences such as the Niruktas, Nighantus, and Shiksha. The system thus established is extremely detailed as to shiksha (phonology, including accent) and vyakarana (morphology).
Pāṇini referred to svara as ac pratyahara.

Achaemenid conquest of the Indus Valley

Achaemenid invasion of the Indus ValleyAchaemenid invasion of Indus ValleyAchaemenid occupation of the Indus Valley
According to Hartmut Scharfe, Pāṇini lived in Gandhara close to the borders of the Achaemenid Empire, and Gandhara was then an Achaemenian satrapy following the Achaemenid conquest of the Indus Valley.
The 5th century BCE grammarian Pāṇini lived in an Achaemenid environment.

Phonology

phonologicalphonologicallyphonologist
The system thus established is extremely detailed as to shiksha (phonology, including accent) and vyakarana (morphology).
Early evidence for a systematic study of the sounds in a language appears in the 4th century BCE Ashtadhyayi, a Sanskrit grammar composed by Pāṇini.