Pāṇini

PaniniAṣṭādhyāyīPaninianVālmīkivyākaranamAshtadhyayiAchariya PāṇiniAṣtādhyāyīformal grammarGanapathaIT
(, or "6th to 5th century BCE" ) was an ancient Sanskrit philologist, grammarian, and a revered scholar in ancient India.wikipedia
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Linguistics

linguistlinguisticlinguists
Considered the father of linguistics, Pāṇini likely lived in the northwest Indian subcontinent during the Mahajanapada era. Pāṇini is known for his text Ashtadhyayi, a sutra-style treatise on Sanskrit grammar, 3,959 "verses" or rules on linguistics, syntax and semantics in "eight chapters" which is the foundational text of the Vyākaraṇa branch of the Vedanga, the auxiliary scholarly disciplines of the Vedic period.
The earliest activities in the documentation and description of language have been attributed to the 6th century BC Indian grammarian Pāṇini who wrote a formal description of the Sanskrit language in his .

Sanskrit

Skt.classical SanskritSanskrit language
) was an ancient Sanskrit philologist, grammarian, and a revered scholar in ancient India.
A more refined and standardized grammatical form called the Classical Sanskrit emerged in mid-1st millennium BCE with the Aṣṭādhyāyī treatise of Pāṇini.

Mahajanapadas

mahajanapadaancient IndiaMaha Janapadas
Considered the father of linguistics, Pāṇini likely lived in the northwest Indian subcontinent during the Mahajanapada era.
This process of first settlement on land had completed its final stage prior to the times of the Buddha and Pāṇini.

Sanskrit grammar

grammarSanskritSanskrit Grammar: Including both the Classical Language and the Older Dialects
Pāṇini is known for his text Ashtadhyayi, a sutra-style treatise on Sanskrit grammar, 3,959 "verses" or rules on linguistics, syntax and semantics in "eight chapters" which is the foundational text of the Vyākaraṇa branch of the Vedanga, the auxiliary scholarly disciplines of the Vedic period.
It was studied and codified by Sanskrit grammarians from the later Vedic period (roughly 8th century BCE), culminating in the Pāṇinian grammar of the 6th century BCE.

Syntax

syntacticsyntacticalsyntactically
Pāṇini is known for his text Ashtadhyayi, a sutra-style treatise on Sanskrit grammar, 3,959 "verses" or rules on linguistics, syntax and semantics in "eight chapters" which is the foundational text of the Vyākaraṇa branch of the Vedanga, the auxiliary scholarly disciplines of the Vedic period.
The Aṣṭādhyāyī of Pāṇini (c. 4th century BC in Ancient India), is often cited as an example of a premodern work that approaches the sophistication of a modern syntactic theory (as works on grammar were written long before modern syntax came about).

Mahābhāṣya

Mahābhāsyacommentary on PaniniMahabhashya
His aphoristic text attracted numerous bhashya (commentaries), of which Patanjali's Mahābhāṣya is the most famous in Hindu traditions.
The (महाभाष्य, great commentary), attributed to Patañjali, is a commentary on selected rules of Sanskrit grammar from 's treatise, the Ashtadhyayi, as well as Kātyāyana's Varttika, an elaboration of Pāṇini's grammar.

Lipi

Lipi''' (writing system)
It is not certain whether Pāṇini used writing for the composition of his work, though it is generally agreed that he knew of a form of writing, based on references to words such as lipi ("script") and lipikara ("scribe") in section 3.2 of the Aṣṭādhyāyī.
Section 3.2.21 of Pāṇini's Astadhyayi, composed before mid 4th century BCE, for example, mentions lipi in the context of a writing script.

Lahor

He is said to have been born in Shalatula of ancient Gandhara, which likely was near modern Lahor, a small town at the junction of the Indus and Kabul rivers, which falls in the Swabi District of modern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Historians believe that a town called Salatura existed in the vicinity, where the Sanskrit grammarian Panini probably lived.

Rambhadracharya

Jagadguru RambhadracharyaSwami RambhadracharyaJagadguru Ramanandacharya Swami Rambhadracharya
Rambhadracharya suggests that the name of his father was Paṇina, from which the name Pāṇini could be grammatically derived.
He has authored more than 100 books and 50 papers, including four epic poems, Hindi commentaries on Tulsidas' Ramcharitmanas and Hanuman Chalisa, a Sanskrit commentary in verse on the Ashtadhyayi, and Sanskrit commentaries on the Prasthanatrayi scriptures.

Salatura

He is said to have been born in Shalatula of ancient Gandhara, which likely was near modern Lahor, a small town at the junction of the Indus and Kabul rivers, which falls in the Swabi District of modern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Śalātura was the birthplace of the Sanskrit grammarian Pāṇini who is considered to the oldest grammarian whose work has come down to modern times.

Vedic period

VedicVedic timesVedic culture
Pāṇini is known for his text Ashtadhyayi, a sutra-style treatise on Sanskrit grammar, 3,959 "verses" or rules on linguistics, syntax and semantics in "eight chapters" which is the foundational text of the Vyākaraṇa branch of the Vedanga, the auxiliary scholarly disciplines of the Vedic period.
The grammar of Pāṇini marks a final apex in the codification of Sutra texts, and at the same time the beginning of Classical Sanskrit.

Morphology (linguistics)

morphologymorphologicalmorphologically
Pāṇini's theory of morphological analysis was more advanced than any equivalent Western theory before the 20th century.
The history of morphological analysis dates back to the ancient Indian linguist Pāṇini, who formulated the 3,959 rules of Sanskrit morphology in the text Aṣṭādhyāyī by using a constituency grammar.

Achaemenid conquest of the Indus Valley

conquered by the Achaemenid Empireconquered this territoryconquest of the Indus Valley
The area was then a satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire following the Achaemenid conquest of the Indus Valley, which technically made him in all probability an Achaemenid Persian subject.
The 5th century BCE grammarian Pāṇini lived in an Achaemenid environment.

Kashyapa

Kaasyaparkashyap gotraKashyap muni
The ten Vedic scholar names he quotes are of Apisali, Kashyapa, Gargya, Galava, Cakravarmana, Bharadvaja, Sakatayana, Sakalya, Senaka and Sphotayana.
His name appears in Patanjali's ancient bhasya on verse 1.2.64 of Pāṇini.

Gandhara

GandhāraGandhariGandharis
He is said to have been born in Shalatula of ancient Gandhara, which likely was near modern Lahor, a small town at the junction of the Indus and Kabul rivers, which falls in the Swabi District of modern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Panini has mentioned both the Vedic form of Sanskrit as well as what seems to be Gandhari, a later form of Sanskrit, in his Ashtadhyayi.

Backus–Naur form

BNFBackus–Naur Form (BNF)Backus normal form
A consequence of his grammar's focus on brevity is its highly unintuitive structure, reminiscent of modern notations such as the "Backus–Naur form".
The idea of describing the structure of language using rewriting rules can be traced back to at least the work of Pāṇini (ancient Indian Sanskrit grammarian and a revered scholar in Hinduism who lived sometime between the 7th and 4th century BCE).

Names of the Greeks

RomansHelleneHellenes
The second proposal is based on the occurrence of the word ''Greek woman", or "Greek alphabet").
All peoples under Persian influence adopted the term, and it is from this root that Sanskrit Yavana derives, which one encounters in ancient Sanskrit sources, first attested in Pāṇini's grammar, and later referring, together with Pali Yona, Yonaka to the Indo-Greeks.

Guṇa

gunagunasGuna (Hinduism)
1.1.2: {a, e, o} are called guṇa.
In verse VI.36 of Nirukta by Yāska, a 1st millennium BC text on Sanskrit grammar and language that preceded Panini, Guṇa is declared to be derived from another root Gaṇa, which means "to count, enumerate".

Vṛddhi

vrddhivriddhivṛddhi derivation
1.1.1: {ā, ai, au} are called [[Vṛddhi|]].
In Pāṇini's Sanskrit grammar, it is a technical term for long vowels produced by ablaut (vowel gradation), as for example in:

Patanjali

PatañjaliMaharishi PatanjaliMaharshi Patanjali
His aphoristic text attracted numerous bhashya (commentaries), of which Patanjali's Mahābhāṣya is the most famous in Hindu traditions.
The author of the Mahābhāṣya, an ancient treatise on Sanskrit grammar and linguistics, based on the Aṣṭādhyāyī of Pāṇini. This Patañjali's life is dated to mid 2nd century BCE by both Western and Indian scholars. This text was titled as a bhasya or "commentary" on Katyayana-Panini's work by Patanjali, but is so revered in the Hindu traditions that it is widely known simply as Maha-bhasya or "Great commentary". So vigorous, well reasoned and vast is his text, that this Patanjali has been the authority as the last grammarian of classical Sanskrit for 2,000 years, with Panini and Katyayana preceding him. Their ideas on structure, grammar and philosophy of language have also influenced scholars of other Indian religions such as Buddhism and Jainism.

Indo-European ablaut

ablautzero-gradezero grade
At this point, one can see they are definitions of terminology: guṇa and vṛ́ddhi are the terms for the full and the lengthened Indo-European ablaut grades, respectively.
However, the phenomenon of the Indo-European ablaut itself was first recorded more than 2000 years earlier by the Sanskrit grammarians and was codified by Pāṇini in his Ashtadhyayi, where the terms [[guṇa|]] and [[vṛddhi|]] were used to describe the phenomena now known respectively as the full grade and lengthened grade.

Bharata Muni

BharataBharatamuni Bharata Muni
His formalization of language seems to have been influential in the formalization of dance and music by Bharata Muni.
Intellectually, his formalization of dance and music is in the same spirit as that of grammar by Pāṇini.

Vyākaraṇa

Sanskrit grammarVyakaranagrammarian
Pāṇini is known for his text Ashtadhyayi, a sutra-style treatise on Sanskrit grammar, 3,959 "verses" or rules on linguistics, syntax and semantics in "eight chapters" which is the foundational text of the Vyākaraṇa branch of the Vedanga, the auxiliary scholarly disciplines of the Vedic period.
Pāṇini and Yāska are the two celebrated ancient scholars of Vyākaraṇa; both are dated to several centuries prior to the start of the common era, with Pāṇini likely from the fifth century BCE.

Bhaṭṭikāvya

BhattiBhattikavyaRavanavadha
This grammar of had been the object of intense study for the ten centuries prior to the composition of the Bhaṭṭikāvya.
It focuses on two deeply rooted Sanskrit traditions, the Ramayana and Panini's grammar, while incorporating numerous other traditions, in a rich mix of science and art, poetically retelling the adventures of Rama and a compendium of examples of grammar and rhetoric.

Shiksha

akṣaragrammatical traditionphonemes
It complements the Vedic ancillary sciences such as the Niruktas, Nighantus, and Shiksha.
Pāṇini referred to svara as ac pratyahara.