Pětka

The Pětka or Committee of Five was an unofficial, informal, extra-parliamentary semi-constitutional political forum designed to cope with political difficulties during the First Republic of Czechoslovakia.wikipedia
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First Czechoslovak Republic

CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovak RepublicCzechoslovak
The Pětka or Committee of Five was an unofficial, informal, extra-parliamentary semi-constitutional political forum designed to cope with political difficulties during the First Republic of Czechoslovakia.
The leaders of these parties became known as the "Pětka" (''pron.

Republican Party of Farmers and Peasants

Agrarian PartyRepublican Party of Agrarian and Smallholding PeoplesAgrarians
The five representative experts and their political parties were: Antonín Švehla (Agrarian Party), Alois Rašín (National Democratic Party), Rudolf Bechyně (Social Democratic Party), Jiří Stříbrný (Socialist Party) and Jan Šrámek ([[Christian_and_Democratic_Union_–_Czechoslovak_People's_Party#Czechoslovak_People.27s_Party|People's Party]]).
It participated in the Pětka coalition governments, and it was a member of the International Agrarian Bureau.

Antonín Švehla

The five representative experts and their political parties were: Antonín Švehla (Agrarian Party), Alois Rašín (National Democratic Party), Rudolf Bechyně (Social Democratic Party), Jiří Stříbrný (Socialist Party) and Jan Šrámek ([[Christian_and_Democratic_Union_–_Czechoslovak_People's_Party#Czechoslovak_People.27s_Party|People's Party]]).
He is regarded as one of the most important political figures of the First Czechoslovak Republic; he was the leader of the Agrarian Party, which was dominant within the Pětka, which was largely his own invention.

History of Czechoslovakia (1918–1938)

CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakCzechoslovak state
Invited to participate in the Pětka were the leaders of the four other leading political parties in the newly formed Republic of Czechoslovakia.
A coalition of five Czechoslovak parties, which became known as the "Pětka" (The Five), constituted the backbone of the government and maintained stability.

Parliament

parliamentary governmentparliamentslegislative assembly
The Pětka or Committee of Five was an unofficial, informal, extra-parliamentary semi-constitutional political forum designed to cope with political difficulties during the First Republic of Czechoslovakia.

Czech language

CzechcsCzech-language
The name comes from the Czech word for "five", and is pronounced pyetka.

Czechoslovakia

CzechoslovakCzechTCH
It played a crucial role in Czechoslovak politics in the era of the first Republic.

Czech Social Democratic Party

ČSSDSocial Democratic PartySocial Democrats
The five representative experts and their political parties were: Antonín Švehla (Agrarian Party), Alois Rašín (National Democratic Party), Rudolf Bechyně (Social Democratic Party), Jiří Stříbrný (Socialist Party) and Jan Šrámek ([[Christian_and_Democratic_Union_–_Czechoslovak_People's_Party#Czechoslovak_People.27s_Party|People's Party]]).

Alois Rašín

Rašín
The five representative experts and their political parties were: Antonín Švehla (Agrarian Party), Alois Rašín (National Democratic Party), Rudolf Bechyně (Social Democratic Party), Jiří Stříbrný (Socialist Party) and Jan Šrámek ([[Christian_and_Democratic_Union_–_Czechoslovak_People's_Party#Czechoslovak_People.27s_Party|People's Party]]).

Jan Šrámek

The five representative experts and their political parties were: Antonín Švehla (Agrarian Party), Alois Rašín (National Democratic Party), Rudolf Bechyně (Social Democratic Party), Jiří Stříbrný (Socialist Party) and Jan Šrámek ([[Christian_and_Democratic_Union_–_Czechoslovak_People's_Party#Czechoslovak_People.27s_Party|People's Party]]).

Jiří Stříbrný

STŘIBRNÝ, Jiří (Ferdinand)
The five representative experts and their political parties were: Antonín Švehla (Agrarian Party), Alois Rašín (National Democratic Party), Rudolf Bechyně (Social Democratic Party), Jiří Stříbrný (Socialist Party) and Jan Šrámek ([[Christian_and_Democratic_Union_–_Czechoslovak_People's_Party#Czechoslovak_People.27s_Party|People's Party]]).

Czech National Social Party

Czechoslovak Socialist PartyCzechoslovak National Socialist PartyCzechoslovak National Social Party

Jan Černý

The Pětka was founded in 1920 to provide guidance to the weak cabinet of Jan Černý, which is said to have "resembled a ventriloquist’s dummy: it had no political will or voice of its own".

Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk

MasarykTomáš MasarykT. G. Masaryk
The first President of Czechoslovakia, Tomáš Masaryk saw the new Europe as "a laboratory built over the graveyard of the world war, a laboratory that needs the work of all".

Dictator

dictatorialdictatorsdictatorial powers
In order to govern Czechoslovakia it would have been easier for Masaryk to rule as a dictator, however, this was against his democratic ideals.

Political party

political partiespartyparties
The five representative experts and their political parties were: Antonín Švehla (Agrarian Party), Alois Rašín (National Democratic Party), Rudolf Bechyně (Social Democratic Party), Jiří Stříbrný (Socialist Party) and Jan Šrámek ([[Christian_and_Democratic_Union_–_Czechoslovak_People's_Party#Czechoslovak_People.27s_Party|People's Party]]).

Czechoslovak National Democracy

National DemocracyNational Democratic PartyNational Democrats
The five representative experts and their political parties were: Antonín Švehla (Agrarian Party), Alois Rašín (National Democratic Party), Rudolf Bechyně (Social Democratic Party), Jiří Stříbrný (Socialist Party) and Jan Šrámek ([[Christian_and_Democratic_Union_–_Czechoslovak_People's_Party#Czechoslovak_People.27s_Party|People's Party]]).

Prime minister

PMprime ministerschief minister
The main force behind the Petka was Antonín Švehla who was to serve as Czechoslovakia’s prime minister between 1922–1926 and 1926–1929 and wield much influence over the government. In September 1921, it seems to have been the Pětka that was responsible for deciding to install Edvard Beneš as the prime minister.

Ad hoc

ad-hocadhocAd hoc query
Conceived on an ad hoc basis, this behind-the-scenes forum proved so effective, that the leaders of the five parties – the Agrarians, the National Socialists, the National Democrats, the Social Democrats, and the Catholic Party – reconvened the Pětka on several occasions throughout the following two decades.

Cabinet (government)

cabinetcabinetscouncil of ministers
Some historians go so far as to argue that the Pětka was the de facto government of Czechoslovakia, in that it had the power to overthrow any cabinet.

Election

electionselectedelectoral
But whatever the true dimensions of its power, it is certain that the non-elected, rather shadowy Pětka wielded a great deal of power during the interwar period.

Interwar period

interwarinterbelluminterwar years
But whatever the true dimensions of its power, it is certain that the non-elected, rather shadowy Pětka wielded a great deal of power during the interwar period.

Edvard Beneš

BenešPresident BenešBeneš, Edvard
In September 1921, it seems to have been the Pětka that was responsible for deciding to install Edvard Beneš as the prime minister.

Communism

communistcommunistscommunist ideology
Through the entire inter-war period in Czechoslovakia, the Left never dominated a cabinet, the Communists never participated in a government and the coalition in power was never faced with an organised opposition bloc of opponent parties capable of assuming office itself.