P16

CDKN2Ap16INK4ap16 INK4a genes, p16INK4aINK4a/Arfp16 INK4ap16.protein P16
p16 (also known as p16 INK4a, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, CDKN2A, multiple tumor suppressor 1 and numerous other synonyms), is a protein that slows cell division by slowing the progression of the cell cycle from the G1 phase to the S phase, thereby acting as a tumor suppressor.wikipedia
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CDKN2A

cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2ACycline-dependent kinase inhibitor 2Ap16Ink4a
It is encoded by the CDKN2A gene.
The gene codes for two proteins, including the INK4 family member p16 (or p16INK4a) and p14arf.

Melanoma

malignant melanomametastatic melanomamelanomas
p16 is also implicated in the prevention of melanoma, oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, cervical cancer, and esophageal cancer.
One class of mutations affects the gene CDKN2A.

Oropharyngeal cancer

throat cancertonsil canceroropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma
p16 is also implicated in the prevention of melanoma, oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, cervical cancer, and esophageal cancer.

Ankyrin repeat

ANKANK repeatAnkA
It is a protein with 148 amino acids and a molecular weight of 16 kDa that comprises four ankyrin repeats.
These proteins include the cell cycle inhibitor p16, which is associated with cancer, and the Notch protein (a key component of cell signalling pathways) which can cause the neurological disorder CADASIL when the repeat domain is disrupted by mutations.

P14arf

p14P14 ARF alternate open reading frame (ARF)
The remaining transcript includes an alternate exon 1 located 20 kb upstream of the remainder of the gene; this transcript contains an alternate open reading frame (ARF) that specifies a protein that is structurally unrelated to the products of the other variants.
p14ARF (also called ARF tumor suppressor, ARF, p14 ARF ) is an alternate reading frame protein product of the CDKN2A locus (i.e. INK4a/ARF locus).

Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor protein

cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitorCKICKIs
The name of p16 is derived from its molecular weight, and the alternative name p16 INK4a refers to its role in inhibiting cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDK4.

Tumor suppressor

tumor suppressor genetumor suppressor genestumour suppressor gene
p16 (also known as p16 INK4a, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, CDKN2A, multiple tumor suppressor 1 and numerous other synonyms), is a protein that slows cell division by slowing the progression of the cell cycle from the G1 phase to the S phase, thereby acting as a tumor suppressor.
Other examples of tumour suppressors include pVHL, APC, CD95, ST5, YPEL3, ST7, and ST14, p16, BRCA2, APC.

Cyclin-dependent kinase 4

CDK44CDK4 gene
At least three alternatively spliced variants encoding distinct proteins have been reported, two of which encode structurally related isoforms known to function as inhibitors of CDK4.
The activity of this kinase is restricted to the G1-S phase, which is controlled by the regulatory subunits D-type cyclins and CDK inhibitor p16 INK4a.

Pancreatic cancer

pancreaticpancreaspancreatic carcinoma
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is often associated with mutations in the CDKN2A gene.
More than 90% of cases at all grades carry a faulty KRAS gene, while in grades 2 and 3 damage to three further genes – CDKN2A (p16), p53 and SMAD4 – are increasingly often found.

Cell cycle

M phasecell cycle progressioncell-cycle
In spite of their structural and functional differences, the CDK inhibitor isoforms and the ARF product encoded by this gene, through the regulatory roles of CDK4 and p53 in cell cycle G1 progression, share a common functionality in controlling the G1 phase of the cell cycle.
The INK4a/ARF family includes p16 INK4a, which binds to CDK4 and arrests the cell cycle in G 1 phase, and p14 ARF which prevents p53 degradation.

Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase

SA-beta-galsenescence-associated β-galactosidase
p16INK4a, along with senescence-associated beta-galactosidase, is regarded to be a biomarker of cellular senescence.
Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase, along with p16 Ink4A, is regarded to be a biomarker of cellular senescence.

Mesothelioma

malignant mesotheliomamalignant pleural mesotheliomapleural mesothelioma
p16 deletion detected by FISH in surface epithelial mesothelial proliferations is predictive of underlying invasive mesothelioma.

Cyclin D

cyclinCyclin D1cyclin-D1
Other than Rb, viral cyclin D-Cdk6 complex also targets p27 Kip, a Cdk inhibitor of cyclin E and A. In addition, viral cyclin D-Cdk6 is resistant to Cdk inhibitors, such as p21 CIP1/WAF1 and p16 INK4a which in human cells inhibits Cdk4 by preventing it from forming an active complex with cyclin D.

Mdm2

E3 Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Mdm2 (MDM2)Hdm2Mdm-2
The ARF product functions as a stabilizer of the tumor suppressor protein p53, as it can interact with and sequester MDM2, a protein responsible for the degradation of p53.
The induction of the p14arf protein, the alternate reading frame product of the p16INK4a locus, is also a mechanism of negatively regulating the p53-Mdm2 interaction.

PPP1R9B

Spinophilin
PPP1R9B has been shown to interact with PPP1CB, PPP1CA, Dopamine receptor D2, P16, PPP1CC, T-cell lymphoma invasion and metastasis-inducing protein 1 and PPP1R2.

P53

TP53p53 genep53 protein
The ARF product functions as a stabilizer of the tumor suppressor protein p53, as it can interact with and sequester MDM2, a protein responsible for the degradation of p53.

Protein

proteinsproteinaceousstructural proteins
p16 (also known as p16 INK4a, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, CDKN2A, multiple tumor suppressor 1 and numerous other synonyms), is a protein that slows cell division by slowing the progression of the cell cycle from the G1 phase to the S phase, thereby acting as a tumor suppressor.

Cell division

divisiondaughter cellcellular division
p16 (also known as p16 INK4a, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, CDKN2A, multiple tumor suppressor 1 and numerous other synonyms), is a protein that slows cell division by slowing the progression of the cell cycle from the G1 phase to the S phase, thereby acting as a tumor suppressor.

G1 phase

G1G 1 phaseG 1
p16 (also known as p16 INK4a, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, CDKN2A, multiple tumor suppressor 1 and numerous other synonyms), is a protein that slows cell division by slowing the progression of the cell cycle from the G1 phase to the S phase, thereby acting as a tumor suppressor.

S phase

S-phaseSsynthesis phase
p16 (also known as p16 INK4a, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, CDKN2A, multiple tumor suppressor 1 and numerous other synonyms), is a protein that slows cell division by slowing the progression of the cell cycle from the G1 phase to the S phase, thereby acting as a tumor suppressor.