PAL

colour television25p2550PAL-IEuropeanPAL regionPhase Alternating Line25 and 50i25 frame/s
Phase Alternating Line (PAL) is a colour encoding system for analogue television used in broadcast television systems in most countries broadcasting at 625-line / 50 field (25 frame) per second (576i).wikipedia
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SECAM

CIS-SECAMSECAM LSÉCAM
Other common colour encoding systems are NTSC and SECAM.
It was one of three major colour television standards, the others being the European PAL and North American NTSC.

576i

625-line720x576analogue
Phase Alternating Line (PAL) is a colour encoding system for analogue television used in broadcast television systems in most countries broadcasting at 625-line / 50 field (25 frame) per second (576i).
576i is a standard-definition video mode originally used for broadcast television in most countries of the world where the utility frequency for electric power distribution is 50 Hz. Because of its close association with the color encoding system, it is often referred to as simply PAL, PAL/SECAM or SECAM when compared to its 60 Hz (typically, see PAL-M) NTSC-color-encoded counterpart, 480i.

Terrestrial television systems

broadcast television systemsbroadcast television systembroadcast TV
The articles on broadcast television systems and analogue television further describe frame rates, image resolution and audio modulation.
There were three main analogue television systems in use around the world until the late 2010s (expected): NTSC, PAL, and SECAM.

NTSC

analog30panalogue broadcasting
Other common colour encoding systems are NTSC and SECAM. NTSC is used with a frame rate of 60i or 30p whereas PAL generally uses 50i or 25p; both use a high enough frame rate to give the illusion of fluid motion.
For comparison, 576i systems such as PAL-B/G and SECAM use 625 lines (576 visible), and so have a higher vertical resolution, but a lower temporal resolution of 25 frames or 50 fields per second.

Walter Bruch

Bruch, Walter
PAL was developed by Walter Bruch at Telefunken in Hanover, West Germany, with important input from Dr. Kruse and.
He invented the PAL colour television system at Telefunken in the early 1960s.

Digital Video Broadcasting

DVBDigital Video BroadcastDVB Project
All the countries using PAL are currently in process of conversion or have already converted standards to DVB, ISDB or DTMB.
Most European countries are fully covered by digital television and many have switched off PAL/SECAM services.

BBC Two

BBC2BBC 2BBC Two HD
The one BBC channel initially using the broadcast standard was BBC2, which had been the first UK TV service to introduce "625-lines" in 1964.
On 1 July 1967, during the Wimbledon Championships, BBC2 became the first channel in Europe to begin regular broadcasts in colour, using the PAL system.

Composite video

compositecomposite video signalCVBS
Both the PAL and the NTSC system use a quadrature amplitude modulated subcarrier carrying the chrominance information added to the luminance video signal to form a composite video baseband signal.
There are three dominant variants of composite video: NTSC, PAL, and SECAM.

Hanover bars

Early PAL receivers relied on the human eye to do that cancelling; however, this resulted in a comb-like effect known as Hanover bars on larger phase errors.
Hanover bars, in one of the PAL television video formats, are an undesirable visual artifact in the reception of a television image.

Telefunken

AEG-TelefunkenSlaby-d'ArcoTelefunken AG
PAL was developed by Walter Bruch at Telefunken in Hanover, West Germany, with important input from Dr. Kruse and.
In the beginning of the 1960s, Walter Bruch developed the PAL-colour television system for the company, in use by most countries of the western Hemisphere (except United States, Canada, Mexico and the western part of South America).

Interlaced video

interlacedinterlaceinterlacing
NTSC is used with a frame rate of 60i or 30p whereas PAL generally uses 50i or 25p; both use a high enough frame rate to give the illusion of fluid motion.
A Phase Alternating Line (PAL)-based television set display, for example, scans 50 fields every second (25 odd and 25 even).

Analog delay line

delay linedelay linesanalogue delay line
Thus, most receivers now use a chrominance analog delay line, which stores the received colour information on each line of display; an average of the colour information from the previous line and the current line is then used to drive the picture tube.
Analog delay lines are applied in many types of signal processing circuits; for example the PAL television standard uses an analog delay line to store an entire video scanline.

Quadrature amplitude modulation

QAM64-QAM64QAM
Both the PAL and the NTSC system use a quadrature amplitude modulated subcarrier carrying the chrominance information added to the luminance video signal to form a composite video baseband signal.
NTSC and PAL analog Color television systems, where the I- and Q-signals carry the components of chroma (colour) information. The QAM carrier phase is recovered from a special Colorburst transmitted at the beginning of each scan line.

Analog television

analoganalogueanalogue television
Phase Alternating Line (PAL) is a colour encoding system for analogue television used in broadcast television systems in most countries broadcasting at 625-line / 50 field (25 frame) per second (576i).
The colors in those systems are encoded with one of three color coding schemes: NTSC, PAL, or SECAM, and then use RF modulation to modulate this signal onto a very high frequency (VHF) or ultra high frequency (UHF) carrier.

Colorburst

color burstcolour burstburst
After 0.9 µs a 2.25 µs colorburst of 10 cycles is sent.
PAL uses a frequency of exactly 4.43361875 MHz, with its phase alternating between 135° and 225° from line to line.

Burst phase

swinging burst
This swinging burst enables the colour decoder circuitry to distinguish the phase of the R-Y vector which reverses every line.
Burst phase is the first ten cycles of colorburst in the "porch" of the synchronising pulse in the PAL (Phase Alternation Line) broadcast television systems format.

ISDB

ISDB-TISDB-SIntegrated Service Digital Broadcasting-Terrestrial
All the countries using PAL are currently in process of conversion or have already converted standards to DVB, ISDB or DTMB.
ISDB replaced NTSC-J analog television system and the previously used MUSE Hi-vision analogue HDTV system in Japan, and will be replacing NTSC, PAL-M and PAL-N in South America and the Philippines.

PALplus

PALplus
PALplus (or PAL+) is an analogue television broadcasting system aimed to improve and enhance the PAL format while remaining compatible with existing television receivers.

PAL region

PALPAL territoriesPAL regions
PAL region
It is so named because of the PAL (Phase Alternating Line) television standard traditionally used in those regions, as opposed to the NTSC standard traditionally used in Japan and nearly all of North America.

YDbDr

YD B D R
PAL-N uses the YDbDr colour space.
It is very close to YUV (PAL) and its related colour spaces such as YIQ (NTSC), YPbPr and YCbCr.

Broadcast-safe

broadcast safe
Broadcast-safe
Broadcast safe standards for 625 lines of Standard Definition (Inaccurately referred to as PAL, a colour encoding that is usually used with such systems) video are:

Tint control

control
NTSC receivers have a tint control to perform colour correction manually.
Since the problem of phase errors in the real world became well known after the introduction of NTSC, the later PAL and SECAM color television standards attempted to correct for them.

Chrominance

chromachroma signalcolor
U and V are used to transmit chrominance.
Depending on the video standard, the chrominance subcarrier may be either quadrature-amplitude-modulated (NTSC and PAL) or frequency-modulated (SECAM).

Differential gain

Differential gain
The modulation technique of the color subcarrier is quadrature amplitude modulation (QUAM or QAM) both in PAL and NTSC systems.

Moving image formats

formats
Moving image formats
Analog broadcasting systems—PAL/SECAM and NTSC—were historically limited in the set of moving image formats they could transmit and present.