PIAT

Projector, Infantry, Anti TankBritish PIATPIAT gunsProjector, Infantry, Anti-Tank (PIAT)
The Projector, Infantry, Anti Tank (PIAT) Mk I was a British man-portable anti-tank weapon developed during the Second World War.wikipedia
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Boys anti-tank rifle

Boys Anti-tank riflesRifle, Anti-Tank, .55 in, Boys.55 in anti-tank rifle
At the beginning of the Second World War, the British Army possessed two primary anti-tank weapons for its infantry: the Boys anti-tank rifle and the No. 68 AT Rifle Grenade. The PIAT was a little lighter (15kg vs 16kg) and smaller (0.99m long vs 1.57m) than its predecessor, the Boys anti-tank rifle, although it was heavier than the contemporary Bazooka (18 lbs/8.2Kg).
Although adequate against light tanks and tankettes in the early part of the war, the Boys was ineffective against heavier armour and was phased out in favour of the hollow charge-based PIAT mid-war.

Stewart Blacker

L.V. Stewart BlackerLatham Valentine Stewart BlackerLieutenant Colonel Stewart Blacker
68. At the same time that Mohaupt was developing shaped charge ammunition, Lieutenant Colonel Stewart Blacker of the Royal Artillery was investigating the possibility of developing a lightweight platoon mortar.
Lieutenant-Colonel Latham Valentine Stewart Blacker OBE (1 October 1887 – 19 April 1964) was a British Army officer and inventor of weapons; he invented the Blacker Bombard, from which was developed the Hedgehog anti-submarine spigot-mortar - and laid the basis of the PIAT anti tank weapon.

Shaped charge

hollow chargeMunroe effectshaped-charge
The PIAT was based on the spigot mortar system, and projected (launched) a 2.5 pound (1.1 kg) shaped charge bomb using a cartridge in the tail of the projectile.
During World War II, shaped-charge munitions were developed by Germany (Panzerschreck, Panzerfaust, Panzerwurfmine, Mistel), Britain (PIAT, Beehive charge), the Soviet Union (RPG-43, RPG-6), and the U.S. (bazooka).

1948 Arab–Israeli War

1948 Arab-Israeli WarWar of IndependenceIsraeli War of Independence
PIATs were supplied to or obtained by other nations and forces, including the Soviet Union (through Lend Lease), the French resistance, the Polish Underground, and the Israeli Haganah (which used PIATs during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War).
On 19 May the Egyptians attacked Yad Mordechai, where an inferior force of 100 Israelis armed with nothing more than rifles, a medium machinegun and a PIAT anti-tank weapon, held up a column of 2,500 Egyptians, well-supported by armor, artillery and air units, for five days.

Anti-tank warfare

anti-tankanti-tank weaponanti-armor
The Projector, Infantry, Anti Tank (PIAT) Mk I was a British man-portable anti-tank weapon developed during the Second World War.
The first HEAT rounds were rifle grenades, but better delivery systems were soon introduced: the British PIAT was propelled in a manner similar to the spigot mortar with a blackpowder charge contained in the tailfin assembly, the US Bazooka and the German Panzerschreck used rockets, and the German Panzerfaust was a small recoilless gun.

Home Guard (United Kingdom)

Home GuardBritish Home GuardLocal Defence Volunteers
But he did not abandon the design, and eventually come up with the Blacker Bombard, a swivelling spigot-style system that could launch a 20 lb bomb approximately 100 yd; although the bombs it fired could not actually penetrate armour, they could still severely damage tanks, and in 1940 a large number of Blacker Bombards were issued to the Home Guard as anti-tank weapons.
Support weapons were the obsolescent PIAT antitank projector, the Vickers medium machine gun and the 2-inch mortar.

High-explosive anti-tank warhead

HEAThigh explosive anti-tankhigh-explosive anti-tank
Jefferis then had a small number of prototype armour-piercing HEAT rounds made, and took the weapon to be tested at the Small Arms School at Bisley.
The Panzerfaust and Panzerschreck (tank terror) gave the German infantryman the ability to destroy any tank on the battlefield from 50–150 meters with relative ease of use and training (unlike the British PIAT).

Mortar (weapon)

mortarmortarsspigot mortar
68. At the same time that Mohaupt was developing shaped charge ammunition, Lieutenant Colonel Stewart Blacker of the Royal Artillery was investigating the possibility of developing a lightweight platoon mortar. The PIAT was based on the spigot mortar system, and projected (launched) a 2.5 pound (1.1 kg) shaped charge bomb using a cartridge in the tail of the projectile.

Millis Jefferis

Major Millis Rowland JefferisMillis Rowland Jefferis
Shortly after the trial of the Baby Bombard, Blacker was posted to other duties, and left the anti-tank weapon in the hands of a colleague in the department, Major Millis Jefferis.
Their designs include the PIAT, the Sticky bomb and one of the first magnetic Limpet naval mines.

MD1 (military R&D organisation)

MD1MIR(c)Johnny Walker (bomb)
At the time that he developed the Baby Bombard and sent it off the War Office, Blacker was working for a government department known as MD1, which was given the task of developing and delivering weapons for use by guerilla and resistance groups in Occupied Europe.

Commandos (United Kingdom)

British CommandosCommandoBritish Commando
British Army and Royal Marines commandos were also issued with PIATs and used them in action.
After 1943, the Projector, Infantry, Anti Tank, known as the PIAT, replaced the now obsolete Boys anti-tank rifle.

Ernest Smith

Smokey SmithErnest Alvia ("Smokey") SmithErnest Alvia Smith
With a PIAT anti-tank launcher he disabled a 44-ton Mark V Panther tank at a range of just 30 feet (10 metres), and while protecting a wounded comrade, he killed four panzergrenadiers and routed six others.

Blacker Bombard

spigot mortar emplacementanti-tank gun
But he did not abandon the design, and eventually come up with the Blacker Bombard, a swivelling spigot-style system that could launch a 20 lb bomb approximately 100 yd; although the bombs it fired could not actually penetrate armour, they could still severely damage tanks, and in 1940 a large number of Blacker Bombards were issued to the Home Guard as anti-tank weapons.

Frank Jefferson

Francis Arthur JeffersonFrancis Jefferson
The enemy counter-attacked opening fire at short range, and Fusilier Jefferson on his own initiative seized a PIAT gun and, running forward under a hail of bullets, fired on the leading tank.

Ganju Lama

Rifleman Ganju Lama, with complete disregard for his own safety, took his PIAT gun and, crawling forward, succeeded in bringing the gun into action within 30 yards of the enemy tanks, knocking out two of them.

Robert Henry Cain

Robert Cain
The company was only armed with PIATs and mortars and although Cain and several of his company opened fire on the tanks and guns, they did not manage to disable any.

Panzer IV

IVPanzerkampfwagen IVPzKpfw IV
The rugged terrain caused the side-skirt armor used to predetonate shaped charge anti-tank weapons, such as the British PIAT, to be pulled away.

Bazooka

M20 Super Bazookabazookas3.5-inch bazooka
The PIAT was a little lighter (15kg vs 16kg) and smaller (0.99m long vs 1.57m) than its predecessor, the Boys anti-tank rifle, although it was heavier than the contemporary Bazooka (18 lbs/8.2Kg). The PIAT remained in service until the early 1950s, when it was replaced initially by the ENERGA anti-tank rifle grenade and then the American M20 "Super Bazooka".

ENERGA anti-tank rifle grenade

EnergaENERGA rifle grenadeAnti-Tank Grenade No 94 Energra
The PIAT remained in service until the early 1950s, when it was replaced initially by the ENERGA anti-tank rifle grenade and then the American M20 "Super Bazooka".
The Energa was introduced to infantry units of the British Army of the Rhine from 1952 when it replaced the PIAT.

Italian resistance movement

Italian ResistancepartisansItalian partisans
Additional weapons (chiefly of British origin) were airdropped by the Allies: PIATs, Lee–Enfield rifles, Bren light machine guns and Sten guns.

Battle of Longewala

Battle of LaungewalaLongewalaoffensive plan
The Indian infantry held their fire until the leading Pakistani tanks had approached to 15–30 metres before firing their PIATs.

Battle of Villers-Bocage

Villers BocageVillers-Bocagefighting around Villers-Bocage
Wittmann drove towards Villers-Bocage and along the road, the Rifle Brigade troops attempted to reply with PIAT anti-tank weapons and a 6-pounder anti-tank gun but, as the Tiger drew closer, panic set in and the riflemen looked for cover.

Battles of the Kinarot Valley

advanceattackedBattle at Degania
A company of reinforcements from the Gadna program was allocated, along with 3 PIATs.

Battle of Ortona

OrtonaBattle for Ortonabloody battle
This tactic involved using weapons such as the PIAT or cumbersome Teller anti-tank mines to create a large aperture in the wall of a building, as houses within Ortona shared adjoining walls.

Battle of Yad Mordechai

attackedYad Mordechaicaptures
Left behind were 110 members (twenty of them women) and two squads of Palmachniks, equipped with light weapons, a medium machine gun and a PIAT hand-held anti-tank weapon.