PIC microcontrollers

PIC microcontrollers in DIP and QFN packages
16-bit 28-pin PDIP PIC24 microcontroller next to a metric ruler
Die of a PIC12C508 8-bit, fully static, EEPROM/EPROM/ROM-based CMOS microcontroller manufactured by Microchip Technology using a 1200 nanometre process
Die of a PIC16C505 CMOS ROM-based 8-bit microcontroller manufactured by Microchip Technology using a 1200 nanometre process
Various older (EPROM) PIC microcontrollers
Microchip PIC16C58A
PIC16LF870 in SOIC Socket
This is a 2003 era programmer for the Microchip "PIC" family of microcontrollers. It connects by RS 232 cable to a PC compatible running development software. In 2003 this unit cost $300 Canadian (about $200 US at the time).

Family of microcontrollers made by Microchip Technology, derived from the PIC1650 originally developed by General Instrument's Microelectronics Division.

- PIC microcontrollers

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Type of programmable read-only memory (PROM) chip that retains its data when its power supply is switched off.

An EPROM: the Texas Instruments TMS27C040, a CMOS chip with 4 megabits of storage and 8-bit output (shown here in a 600-mil ceramic dual-in-line package). The TMS27C040 operates at 5 volts, but must be programmed at 13 volts.
An Intel 1702A EPROM, one of the earliest EPROM types (1971), 256 by 8 bit. The small quartz window admits UV light for erasure.
A cross-section of a floating-gate transistor
Atmel AT27C010 - an OTP EPROM
A 32 KB (256 Kbit) EPROM
This 8749 Microcontroller stores its program in internal EPROM
NEC 02716, 16 KBit EPROM

Such microcontrollers include some versions of the Intel 8048, the Freescale 68HC11, and the "C" versions of the PIC microcontroller.

General Instrument

American electronics manufacturer based in Horsham, Pennsylvania, specializing in semiconductors and cable television equipment.

Videocipher II satellite descrambler

8-bit Microcontroller: the PIC1650, an NMOS chip. The CMOS version of this chip is the basis of today's PIC microcontrollers.

Microchip Technology

Publicly-listed American corporation that manufactures microcontroller, mixed-signal, analog and Flash-IP integrated circuits.

A 1988 vintage Microchip PIC16CR54 with the Apple Desktop Bus protocol pre-programmed, before they became an independent company, as used in a Macintosh SE.
Former Microsemi office in Garden Grove, California, now owned by Microchip
EEPROM 28EE011 made by SST
SuperFlash memory chip
4-port USB 2.0 Hub and 10/100 Ethernet Controller on a Raspberry Pi 3 B
ISSC Technologies Headset IC with A2DP streaming for Bluetooth v3.0 (EDR)
10Base-T/100Base-TX Physical Layer Transceiver by Micrel
Dual Channel Ringing Subscriber Line Interface Circuit (SLIC)

Its products include microcontrollers (PIC, dsPIC, AVR and SAM), Serial EEPROM devices, Serial SRAM devices, embedded security devices, radio frequency (RF) devices, thermal, power and battery management analog devices, as well as linear, interface and wireless products.

Accumulator (computing)

Register in which intermediate arithmetic logic unit results are stored.

Walther WSR-16 mechanical calculator. The row of digit-wheels in the carriage (at the front), is the Accumulator.
Front panel of an IBM 701 computer with lights displaying the accumulator and other registers

Many 8-bit microcontrollers that are still popular as of 2014, such as the PICmicro and 8051, are accumulator-based machines.


Small computer on a single metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) VLSI integrated circuit (IC) chip.

The die from an Intel 8742, an 8-bit microcontroller that includes a CPU running at 12 MHz, 128 bytes of RAM, 2048 bytes of EPROM, and I/O in the same chip
Two ATmega microcontrollers
A PIC 18F8720 microcontroller in an 80-pin TQFP package
Die of a PIC12C508 8-bit, fully static, EEPROM/EPROM/ROM-based CMOS microcontroller manufactured by Microchip Technology using a 1200 nanometer process
Die of a STM32F100C4T6B ARM Cortex-M3 microcontroller with 16 kilobytes flash memory, 24 MHz central processing unit (CPU), motor control and Consumer Electronics Control (CEC) functions. Manufactured by STMicroelectronics.

in-circuit programming and in-circuit debugging support


Computer processor where the data processing logic and control is included on a single integrated circuit, or a small number of integrated circuits.

Texas Instruments TMS1000
Intel 4004
Motorola 68000 (MC68000)
A modern 64 bit x86-64 processor (AMD Ryzen 5 2600, Based on Zen+, 2017)
AMD Ryzen 7 1800X (2016, based on Zen) processor in a AM4 socket on a motherboard
A block diagram of the architecture of the Z80 microprocessor, showing the arithmetic and logic section, register file, control logic section, and buffers to external address and data lines
Intel Core i9-9900K (2018, based on Coffee Lake)
The PICO1/GI250 chip introduced in 1971: It was designed by Pico Electronics (Glenrothes, Scotland) and manufactured by General Instrument of Hicksville NY.
The 4004 with cover removed (left) and as actually used (right)
First microprocessor by Intel, the 4004
Upper interconnect layers on an Intel 80486DX2 die
ABIT BP6 motherboard supported two Intel Celeron 366Mhz processors picture shows Zalman heatsinks.
Abit BP6 dual-socket Motherboard shown with Zalman Flower heatsinks.

In 1987, the GI Microelectronics business was spun out into the Microchip PIC microcontroller business.

MIPS architecture

Family of reduced instruction set computer (RISC) instruction set architectures (ISA) developed by MIPS Computer Systems, now MIPS Technologies, based in the United States.

The Sun Microsystems UltraSPARC processor is a type of RISC microprocessor.

By the late 2010s, MIPS machines were still commonly used in embedded markets, including automotive, wireless router, LTE modems (mainly via MediaTek), and microcontrollers (for example the Microchip Technology PIC32M).

Serial Peripheral Interface

Synchronous serial communication interface specification used for short-distance communication, primarily in embedded systems.

Single master to single slave: basic SPI bus example
A typical hardware setup using two shift registers to form an inter-chip circular buffer
A timing diagram showing clock polarity and phase. Red lines denote clock leading edges; and blue lines, trailing edges.
Typical SPI bus: master and three independent slaves
Daisy-chained SPI bus: master and cooperative slaves
SPI Serial Memory by Atmel
Fairchild Serial EEPROM with Microwire bus

For "Microchip PIC" / "ARM-based" microcontrollers (note that NCPHA is the inversion of CPHA):

Harvard architecture

Computer architecture with separate storage and signal pathways for instructions and data.


Microcontrollers are characterized by having small amounts of program (flash memory) and data (SRAM) memory, and take advantage of the Harvard architecture to speed processing by concurrent instruction and data access. The separate storage means the program and data memories may feature different bit widths, for example using 16-bit-wide instructions and 8-bit-wide data. They also mean that instruction prefetch can be performed in parallel with other activities. Examples include the PIC by Microchip Technology, Inc. and the AVR by Atmel Corp (now part of Microchip Technology).

Bank switching

Technique used in computer design to increase the amount of usable memory beyond the amount directly addressable by the processor instructions.

A hypothetical memory map of bank-switched memory for a processor that can only address 64 KB. This scheme shows 200 KB of memory, of which only 64 KB can be accessed at any time by the processor. The operating system must manage the bank-switching operation to ensure that program execution can continue when part of memory is not accessible to the processor.
Bank select switch on Cromemco memory board was used to map the memory into one or more of 8 distinct 64 KB banks.
Expanded memory in the IBM PC

An example is the PIC microcontroller.