Paclitaxel

Taxolanti-cancerCT-2103PaxeneTaxol A
Paclitaxel (PTX), sold under the brand name Taxol among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer.wikipedia
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Chemotherapy

chemotherapeuticantineoplasticantineoplastic agent
Paclitaxel (PTX), sold under the brand name Taxol among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer.
Simple blood tests are also available for dose optimization of methotrexate, 5-FU, paclitaxel, and docetaxel.

Taxane

taxanesHongdoushanstaxoids
Paclitaxel is in the taxane family of medications. Taxanes, including paclitaxel, 10-deacetylbaccatin III, baccatin III, paclitaxel C, and 7-epipaclitaxel, have been found in the leaves and shells of hazel.
Paclitaxel (Taxol) and docetaxel (Taxotere) are widely used as chemotherapy agents.

Protein-bound paclitaxel

Abraxanenab-paclitaxelABI-007
There is also an albumin-bound formulation.
Protein-bound paclitaxel, also known as nanoparticle albumin–bound paclitaxel or nab-paclitaxel, is an injectable formulation of paclitaxel used to treat breast cancer, lung cancer and pancreatic cancer, among others.

Drug-eluting stent

Drug-eluting stentsdrug eluting stentDrug Eluting Stents
Paclitaxel drug-eluting stents for coronary artery placement are sold under the trade name Taxus by Boston Scientific in the United States.
The first drug-eluting stents to be approved in Europe and the U.S. were coated with paclitaxel or an mTOR inhibitor, such as sirolimus.

WHO Model List of Essential Medicines

World Health Organization's List of Essential MedicinesList of Essential MedicinesModel List of Essential Medicines
It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.

Ovarian cancer

ovarianovarian carcinomaovary
This includes ovarian cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, Kaposi sarcoma, cervical cancer, and pancreatic cancer.
Common therapies can include paclitaxel, cisplatin, topotecan, doxorubicin, epirubicin, and gemcitabine.

Lung cancer

lungbronchogenic carcinomalungs
This includes ovarian cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, Kaposi sarcoma, cervical cancer, and pancreatic cancer.
Combinations with carboplatin, gemcitabine, paclitaxel, vinorelbine, topotecan, and irinotecan are also used.

Microtubule

microtubulesmicrotubularmicrotubular-based
It works by interference with the normal function of microtubules during cell division.

Baccatin III

Taxanes, including paclitaxel, 10-deacetylbaccatin III, baccatin III, paclitaxel C, and 7-epipaclitaxel, have been found in the leaves and shells of hazel.
Baccatin III is a precursor to the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel (Taxol).

Florida State University

Florida StateFlorida State College for WomenFSU
Florida State University, where Holton worked, signed a deal with Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) to license their semisynthesis and future patents.
Florida State is home to Florida's only national laboratory, the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, and is the birthplace of the commercially viable anti-cancer drug Taxol.

Docetaxel

Taxoteredocetaxel,
Synthetic approaches to paclitaxel production led to the development of docetaxel.
Docetaxel is of the chemotherapy drug class; taxane, and is a semi-synthetic analogue of paclitaxel (Taxol), an extract from the bark of the rare Pacific yew tree, Taxus brevifolia.

Castor oil

castorcastor-oilcastor bean oil
A number of these side effects are associated with the excipient used, Cremophor EL, a polyoxyethylated castor oil, and allergies to cyclosporine, teniposide, and other drugs containing polyoxyethylated castor oil may increase the risk of adverse reactions to paclitaxel.

Mansukh C. Wani

Mansukh Wani
The processes used were descendants of the original isolation method of Monroe Wall and Mansukh Wani; by 1987, the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) had contracted Hauser Chemical Research of Boulder, Colorado, to handle bark on the scale needed for phase II and III trials.
He is co-discoverer of Taxol and camptothecin, two anti-cancer drugs considered standard in the treatment to fight ovarian, breast, lung and colon cancers.

Bladder cancer

bladderbladder carcinomacancer of the bladder
Paclitaxel is approved in the UK for ovarian, breast, lung, bladder, prostate, melanoma, esophageal, and other types of solid tumor cancers as well as Kaposi's sarcoma.
Alternative regimens include paclitaxel with gemcitabine and cisplatin (PCG, triple therapy) and cisplatin, methotrexate and vinblastine (CMV).

Tubulin

β-tubulinγ-tubulinα-tubulin
Paclitaxel is one of several cytoskeletal drugs that target tubulin.
These include paclitaxel, colchicine, and the vinca alkaloids, each of which have a distinct binding site on β-tubulin.

Nicolaou Taxol total synthesis

first article to appear in printNicolaouNicolaou's total synthesis of Taxol
The first laboratories to complete the total synthesis from much less complex starting materials were the research groups of Robert A. Holton, who had the first article to be accepted for publication, and of K. C. Nicolaou who had the first article to appear in print (by a week, on 7 February 1994).
The Nicolaou Taxol total synthesis, published by K. C. Nicolaou and his group in 1994 concerns the total synthesis of Taxol.

Holton Taxol total synthesis

total synthesis of TaxolHoltonfirst article to be accepted for publication
The first laboratories to complete the total synthesis from much less complex starting materials were the research groups of Robert A. Holton, who had the first article to be accepted for publication, and of K. C. Nicolaou who had the first article to appear in print (by a week, on 7 February 1994). The group of Robert A. Holton had also pursued a practical semisynthetic production route; by late 1989, Holton's group had developed a semisynthetic route to paclitaxel with twice the yield of the Potier process.
The Holton Taxol total synthesis, published by Robert A. Holton and his group at Florida State University in 1994 was the first total synthesis of Taxol (generic name: paclitaxel).

Kuwajima Taxol total synthesis

KuwajimaKuwajima et al.
As of 2006, five additional research groups had reported successful total syntheses of paclitaxel: Wender et al. in 1997, and Kuwajima et al. and Mukaiyama et al. in 1998 with further linear syntheses, and Danishefsky et al. in 1996 and Takahashi et al. in 2006 with further convergent syntheses.
The total synthesis of Taxol is considered a landmark in organic synthesis.

Mukaiyama Taxol total synthesis

MukaiyamaMukaiyama et al.
As of 2006, five additional research groups had reported successful total syntheses of paclitaxel: Wender et al. in 1997, and Kuwajima et al. and Mukaiyama et al. in 1998 with further linear syntheses, and Danishefsky et al. in 1996 and Takahashi et al. in 2006 with further convergent syntheses.
The total synthesis of Taxol is considered a hallmark in organic synthesis.

Kaposi's sarcoma

Kaposi sarcomaKaposi’s sarcomaAIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma
This includes ovarian cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, Kaposi sarcoma, cervical cancer, and pancreatic cancer. Paclitaxel is approved in the UK for ovarian, breast, lung, bladder, prostate, melanoma, esophageal, and other types of solid tumor cancers as well as Kaposi's sarcoma.
In general, more widespread disease, or disease affecting internal organs, is treated with systemic therapy with interferon alpha, liposomal anthracyclines (such as liposomal doxorubicin or daunorubicin), thalidomide, or paclitaxel.

Non-small-cell lung carcinoma

non-small cell lung cancernon-small-cell lung cancernon-small cell lung carcinoma
It is recommended in National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance of June 2001 that it should be used for non-small-cell lung cancer in patients unsuitable for curative treatment, and in first-line and second-line treatment of ovarian cancer.
This is based on an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study which found that adding bevacizumab to carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy for certain patients with recurrent or advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (stage IIIB or IV) may increase both overall survival and progression free survival.

National Cancer Institute

NCIU.S. National Cancer InstituteNational Cancer Institute (NCI)
The processes used were descendants of the original isolation method of Monroe Wall and Mansukh Wani; by 1987, the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) had contracted Hauser Chemical Research of Boulder, Colorado, to handle bark on the scale needed for phase II and III trials.

Citrus black spot

Guignardia citricarpaPhyllosticta citricarpa
It has since been reported in a number of other endophytic fungi, including Nodulisporium sylviforme, Alternaria taxi, Cladosporium cladosporioides MD2, Metarhizium anisopliae, Aspergillus candidus MD3, Mucor rouxianus, Chaetomella raphigera, Phyllosticta tabernaemontanae, Phomopsis, Pestalotiopsis pauciseta, Phyllosticta citricarpa, Podocarpus sp., Fusarium solani, Pestalotiopsis terminaliae, Pestalotiopsis breviseta, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Gliocladium sp., Alternaria alternata var.
citricarpa'' was found to produce the medically important compound, taxol under certain growth conditions.

Natural product

naturally occurringnatural productsnatural
While both the size of the wild population of the Pacific yew and the magnitude of the eventual demand for paclitaxel were uncertain, it was clear that an alternative, sustainable source of the natural product would be needed.
Clinically useful examples include the anticancer agents paclitaxel and omacetaxine mepesuccinate (from Taxus brevifolia and Cephalotaxus harringtonii, respectively), the antimalarial agent artemisinin (from Artemisia annua), and the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor galantamine (from Galanthus spp.), used to treat Alzheimer's disease.

Danishefsky Taxol total synthesis

DanishefskyDanishefsky et al.Danishefsky Taxol synthesis
As of 2006, five additional research groups had reported successful total syntheses of paclitaxel: Wender et al. in 1997, and Kuwajima et al. and Mukaiyama et al. in 1998 with further linear syntheses, and Danishefsky et al. in 1996 and Takahashi et al. in 2006 with further convergent syntheses.
Taxol resulted from the tail addition of the Ojima lactam to alcohol 51, which is baccatin III (the original target molecule of the Danishefsky synthesis).