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A paddy field is a flooded parcel of arable land used for growing semiaquatic rice.wikipedia
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A paddy field is a flooded parcel of arable land used for growing semiaquatic rice.
Wet rice, rice cultivated in a paddy field
dry-field ricehighland paddyupland rice farmers' challenges
Hill tribes of Thailand still cultivate dry-soil varieties called upland rice.
Upland rice is rice grown on dry soil rather than flooded rice paddies.
Fields can be built into steep hillsides as terraces and adjacent to depressed or steeply sloped features such as rivers or marshes.
Terraced paddy fields are used widely in rice, wheat and barley farming in east, south, and southeast Asia, as well as the Mediterranean, Africa, and South America.
🇮🇩IndonesianRepublic of Indonesia
Paddy field farming is practiced in Asia, namely in Cambodia, Bangladesh, China, Taiwan, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos, and in Europe, Northern Italy, the Camargue in France, and in Spain, particularly in the Albufera de València wetlands in the Valencian Community, the Ebro Delta in Catalonia and the Guadalquivir wetlands in Andalusia, as well as along the eastern coast of Brazil, the Artibonite Valley in Haiti, and Sacramento Valley in California, among other places.
Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE allowed villages, towns, and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE. The archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, which were established several centuries BCE.
YayoiYayoi-periodJapan around the time of
The first paddy fields in Japan date to the Early Yayoi period (300 BC – 250 AD).
Distinguishing characteristics of the Yayoi period include the appearance of new Yayoi pottery styles and the start of an intensive rice agriculture in paddy fields.
CentralJawa TengahCentral Java Province
Divisions of labour between men, women, and animals that are still in place in Indonesian rice cultivation, were carved into relief friezes on the ninth century Prambanan temples in Central Java: a water buffalo attached to a plough; women planting seedlings and pounding grain; and a man carrying sheaves of rice on each end of a pole across his shoulders (pikulan). In the sixteenth century, Europeans visiting the Indonesian islands saw rice as a new prestige food served to the aristocracy during ceremonies and feasts.
Paddy fields are extensive, except in the southeastern Gunung Kidul region partly due to the high concentration of limestone and its location in a rain shadow from the prevailing weather.
Divisions of labour between men, women, and animals that are still in place in Indonesian rice cultivation, were carved into relief friezes on the ninth century Prambanan temples in Central Java: a water buffalo attached to a plough; women planting seedlings and pounding grain; and a man carrying sheaves of rice on each end of a pole across his shoulders (pikulan). In the sixteenth century, Europeans visiting the Indonesian islands saw rice as a new prestige food served to the aristocracy during ceremonies and feasts. Oxen and water buffalo, adapted for life in wetlands, are important working animals used extensively in paddy field farming.
They are especially suitable for tilling rice fields, and their milk is richer in fat and protein than that of dairy cattle.
floating riceDeep waterdeep-water
Paddy cultivation should not be confused with cultivation of deepwater rice, which is grown in flooded conditions with water more than 50 cm (20 in) deep for at least a month.
Deepwater rice emits the least methane, a greenhouse gas, of the wetland rice ecologies, producing approximately three times less than paddy field rice.
CelebesCelebes IslandCelebes Islands
Evidence of wild rice on the island of Sulawesi dates from 3000 BCE.
Speculative planting of wet rice may have taken place along the margins of the lakes and rivers.
Historic evidence for the earliest cultivation, however, comes from eighth century stone inscriptions from the central island of Java, which show kings levied taxes in rice.
More mountains and highlands help to split the interior into a series of relatively isolated regions suitable for wet-rice cultivation; the rice lands of Java are among the richest in the world.
MumunMumun PeriodNeolithic age
The two oldest are the Okhyun and Yaumdong sites, found in Ulsan, dating to the early Mumun pottery period.
A number of wet-field features have been excavated in southern Korea, indicating that paddy field rice-farming was also practiced.
south-east AsiaSoutheastSouth East Asia
Paddy fields are the typical feature of rice farming in east, south and southeast Asia.
Rice paddy agriculture has existed in Southeast Asia for thousands of years, ranging across the subregion.
At Caoxieshan, a site of the Neolithic Majiabang culture, archaeologists excavated paddy fields.
At Caoxieshan and Chuodun, sites of the Majiabang culture, archaeologists excavated paddy fields, indicating the centrality of rice to the economy.
Sunshu Ao of the 6th century BC and Ximen Bao of the 5th century BC are two of the earliest hydraulic engineers from China, and their works were focused upon improving irrigation systems.
These reservoirs and canal systems were used primarily to irrigate paddy fields, which require a lot of water to cultivate.
SubakBalinese irrigation systemCultural Landscape of Bali Province: the ''Subak'' System as a Manifestation of the ''Tri Hita Karana'' Philosophy
Steep terrain on Bali resulted in an intricate cooperation systems, locally called subak, to manage water storage and drainage for rice terraces.
Subak is the water management (irrigation) system for paddy fields on Bali island, Indonesia which was developed in the 9th century.
Yuanyang CountyYuanyangCultural Landscape of Honghe Hani Rice Terraces
Localities in China which are famous for their spectacular rice paddies are Yuanyang County, Yunnan, and Longsheng County, Guangxi.
It is a popular destination with photographers due to the vast areas of nearby mountains which have been cultivated into terraced rice paddies for at least the past 1300 years by the Hani people.
Bali, IndonesiaBalineseBali Province
The fertile volcanic soil of much of the Indonesian archipelago—and particularly the islands of Java and Bali—has made rice a central dietary staple.
Balinese culture was strongly influenced by Indian, Chinese, and particularly Hindu culture, beginning around the 1st century AD. The name Bali dwipa ("Bali island") has been discovered from various inscriptions, including the Blanjong pillar inscription written by Sri Kesari Warmadewa in 914 AD and mentioning Walidwipa. It was during this time that the people developed their complex irrigation system subak to grow rice in wet-field cultivation.
HanHan EmpireEastern Han dynasty
There is archaeological evidence that unhusked rice was stored for the military and for burial with the deceased from the Neolithic period to the Han Dynasty in China.
In southern and small parts of central Han-era China, paddy fields were chiefly used to grow rice, while farmers along the Huai River used transplantation methods of rice production.
Sultanate of KelantanKelantanese Kelantan
Paddy fields also can be found on Malaysia's eastern coast region, mainly in Kelantan and Terengganu, and also in Selangor, especially in the districts of Kuala Selangor and Sabak Bernam.
Kelantan, which is said to translate as the "Land of Lightning" (see alternate theories below), is an agrarian state with green paddy fields, rustic fishing villages and casuarina-lined beaches.
Kharif seasonkharifKharif or autumn harvest
Paddy is cultivated at least twice a year in most parts of India, the two seasons being known as Rabi and Kharif respectively.
Rice (paddy and deepwater)
In ancient Java, during the Medang Mataram period, many inscriptions are related to the establishment of the sima lands.
The wanua or village is more likely took shape of an "island" filled with housings and orchards in the middle of vast rice paddies, this village layout still can be found in modern Javanese desa.
These developments were widely spread during the ensuing Warring States period (403–221 BC), culminating in the enormous Du Jiang Yan Irrigation System engineered by Li Bing by 256 BC for the State of Qin in ancient Sichuan.
Firstly, the Qin administration was more experienced working with arid lands than with wet rice paddies.
Middle Hillscustoms checkpointHill
It is mainly grown during the summer monsoon in Nepal.
Hindu Paharis mainly populate river and stream bottoms that enable rice cultivation and are warm enough for winter/spring crops of wheat and potato.
rice-growingricerice pledging scheme
Rice production in Thailand represents a significant portion of the Thai economy.
The Thai Ministry of Agriculture expects rice production to yield around 25 million tonnes of paddy rice in the 2016-2017 crop year, down from 27.06 million tonnes in 2015-2016.
place namesnames for geographic featuresplace name
Ta is used as a part of many place names as well as in many family names.
ta or -da for a rice paddy; e.g. Ōda