A report on Pain

An illustration of wrist pain
Portrait of René Descartes by Jan Baptist Weenix, 1647-1649
Regions of the cerebral cortex associated with pain.
Mechanism of nociceptive pain.

Distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.

- Pain
An illustration of wrist pain

57 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Active and inactive μ-opioid receptors

Pain management

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Active and inactive μ-opioid receptors
Young children can indicate their level of pain by pointing to the appropriate face on a children's pain scale

Pain management is an aspect of medicine and health care involving relief of pain (pain relief, analgesia, pain control) in various dimensions, from acute and simple to chronic and challenging.

Chemical structure of morphine, the prototypical opioid.

Opioid

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Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.

Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.

Chemical structure of morphine, the prototypical opioid.
US. Top line represents the number of benzodiazepine deaths that also involved opioids. Bottom line represents benzodiazepine deaths that did not involve opioids.
Locants of the morphine molecule
INTA: selective agonist of KOR-DOR and KOR-MOR heteromers. Does not recruit β-arrestin II. Antinociceptive devoid of aversion, tolerance, and dependence in mice.
A sample of raw opium
US yearly deaths from all opioid drugs. Included in this number are opioid analgesics, along with heroin and illicit .<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>
US yearly deaths involving other, predominately Fentanyl.<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>
US yearly deaths involving prescription opioids. is a category dominated by illegally acquired fentanyl, and has been excluded.<ref name=NIDA-deaths>Overdose Death Rates. By National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).</ref>
US yearly overdose deaths involving heroin.<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>

Opioids are effective for the treatment of acute pain (such as pain following surgery).

Opium poppies such as this one provide ingredients for the class of analgesics called opiates

Analgesic

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Opium poppies such as this one provide ingredients for the class of analgesics called opiates
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An analgesic drug, also called simply an analgesic, pain reliever, or painkiller, is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve relief from pain (that is, analgesia or pain management).

Chronic pain

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Chronic pain is classified as pain that lasts longer than three to six months.

Chemotherapy drugs

Cancer pain

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Pain in cancer may arise from a tumor compressing or infiltrating nearby body parts; from treatments and diagnostic procedures; or from skin, nerve and other changes caused by a hormone imbalance or immune response.

Pain in cancer may arise from a tumor compressing or infiltrating nearby body parts; from treatments and diagnostic procedures; or from skin, nerve and other changes caused by a hormone imbalance or immune response.

Chemotherapy drugs
Cross-section of the spinal cord showing the dorsal column and the anterolateral spinothalamic tracts
Cross section of the spinal cord showing the subarachnoid cavity, dura mater and spinal nerve roots including the dorsal root ganglion

Pain is classed as acute (short term) or chronic (long term).

A localized reaction to intravenous morphine caused by histamine release in the veins

Morphine

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Pain medication of the opiate family that is found naturally in opium, a dark brown resin in poppies .

Pain medication of the opiate family that is found naturally in opium, a dark brown resin in poppies .

A localized reaction to intravenous morphine caused by histamine release in the veins
Before the Morphine by Santiago Rusiñol
Morphine Hydrochloride Ampoule for Veterinary Use
Latex bleeding from a freshly-scored seed pod
Morphine biosynthesis in the opium poppy
Chemical structure of morphine. The benzylisoquinoline backbone is shown in green.
Morphine structure showing its standard ring lettering and carbon numbering system.
Same structure, but in a three-dimensional perspective.
First generation production of alkaloids from licit latex-derived opium
Friedrich Sertürner
Advertisement for curing morphine addiction, c. 1900
An ampoule of morphine with integral needle for immediate use. Also known as a "syrette". From WWII. On display at the Army Medical Services Museum.
Example of different morphine tablets
Two capsules (5 mg & 10 mg) of morphine sulfate extended- release
1 milliliter ampoule containing 10 mg of morphine

It can be taken for both acute pain and chronic pain and is frequently used for pain from myocardial infarction, kidney stones, and during labor.

Four types of sensory neurons and their receptor cells. Nociceptors shown as free nerve endings type A

Nociceptor

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Sensory neuron that responds to damaging or potentially damaging stimuli by sending "possible threat" signals to the spinal cord and the brain.

Sensory neuron that responds to damaging or potentially damaging stimuli by sending "possible threat" signals to the spinal cord and the brain.

Four types of sensory neurons and their receptor cells. Nociceptors shown as free nerve endings type A

Some intense stimuli trigger reflex withdrawal, certain autonomic responses, and pain.

Noxious stimulus

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Stimulus strong enough to threaten the body’s integrity .

Stimulus strong enough to threaten the body’s integrity .

The ability to perceive noxious stimuli is a prerequisite for nociception, which itself is a prerequisite for nociceptive pain.

The Death of Socrates, by Jacques-Louis David (1787), depicting Socrates prepared to drink hemlock, following his conviction for corrupting the youth of Athens

Euthanasia

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The Death of Socrates, by Jacques-Louis David (1787), depicting Socrates prepared to drink hemlock, following his conviction for corrupting the youth of Athens
Felix Adler, circa 1913, the first prominent American to argue for permitting suicide in cases of chronic illness
Hartheim Euthanasia Centre, where over 18,000 people were killed.
Current status of euthanasia around the world:
Active voluntary euthanasia legal (Belgium, Canada, Colombia, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain and the states of New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Australia)
Passive euthanasia legal (refusal of treatment / withdrawal of life support)
Active euthanasia illegal, passive euthanasia not legislated or regulated
All forms of euthanasia illegal

Euthanasia (from εὐθανασία 'good death': εὖ, eu 'well, good' + θάνατος, thanatos 'death') is the practice of intentionally ending life to relieve pain and suffering.

A hand severely affected by rheumatoid arthritis. This degree of swelling and deformation does not typically occur with current treatment.

Rheumatoid arthritis

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Long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints.

Long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints.

A hand severely affected by rheumatoid arthritis. This degree of swelling and deformation does not typically occur with current treatment.
A diagram showing how rheumatoid arthritis affects a joint
X-ray of the hand in rheumatoid arthritis.
Appearance of synovial fluid from a joint with inflammatory arthritis.
Closeup of bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis.
Deaths from rheumatoid arthritis per million persons in 2012

It typically results in warm, swollen, and painful joints.