Palatalization (sound change)

palatalizationpalatalizedpalatalisationpalatalisedmouillépalatalpalatalizespalatalizingetymologically-softened consonantsexpressive palatalization
In linguistics, palatalization is a sound change that either results in a palatal or palatalized consonant or a front vowel, or is triggered by one of them.wikipedia
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Lenition

lenitedspirantizationsoft mutation
In some cases, palatalization involves assimilation or lenition. The lenition tendency of palatalized consonants (by assibilation and deaffrication) is important.
The sound change of palatalization sometimes involves lenition.

Assibilation

assibilatedassibilateunassibilated
The lenition tendency of palatalized consonants (by assibilation and deaffrication) is important.
It is a form of spirantization and is commonly the final phase of palatalization.

Palatalization (phonetics)

palatalizedpalatalizationpalatalisation
In linguistics, palatalization is a sound change that either results in a palatal or palatalized consonant or a front vowel, or is triggered by one of them.
These shifts in primary place of articulation are examples of the sound change of palatalization.

Hard and soft G

hard Ghard "gsoft
An extreme example occurs in Spanish, whose palatalized ('soft') g has ended up as from a long process where Latin became palatalized to (Late Latin) and then affricated to (Proto-Romance), deaffricated to (Old Spanish), devoiced to (16th century), and finally retracted to a velar, giving (c.
This alternation has its origins in a historical palatalization of which took place in Late Latin, and led to a change in the pronunciation of the sound before the front vowels and.

Vulgar Latin

Proto-RomanceLatinVulgar
The Romance languages developed from Vulgar Latin, the colloquial form of Latin spoken in the Roman Empire.
Development of yod from the post-nasal unstressed of vinea enabled the palatalization of /n/ that would produce French vigne, Italian vigna, Spanish viña, Portuguese vinha, Catalan vinya, Occitan vinha, Friulan vigne, etc., 'vineyard'.

Romance languages

RomanceRomance languageRomanic
The Romance languages developed from Vulgar Latin, the colloquial form of Latin spoken in the Roman Empire. Palatalization has played a major role in the history of English, and of other languages and language groups throughout the world, such as the Romance, Greek, Slavic, Baltic, Finnic, Swedish, Norwegian, Mordvinic, Samoyedic, Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Goidelic, Korean, Japanese, Chinese, Albanian, Arabic, and Micronesian languages.
Vulgar Latin is believed to have already had most of the features shared by all Romance languages, which distinguish them from Classical Latin, such as the almost complete loss of the Latin grammatical case system and its replacement by prepositions; the loss of the neuter grammatical gender and comparative inflections; replacement of some verb paradigms by innovations (e.g. the synthetic future gave way to an originally analytic strategy now typically formed by infinitive + evolved present indicative forms of 'have'); the use of articles; and the initial stages of the palatalization of the plosives /k/, /g/, and /t/.

History of the Spanish language

Linguistic history of SpanishHistory of SpanishOld Spanish
1650). (See History of the Spanish language and Phonological history of Spanish coronal fricatives for more information).
Labials (b, p, v) yielded the rounded glide (which was in turn absorbed by a preceding round vowel), while the velar c produced the palatal glide (which could palatalize a following and be absorbed by the resulting palatal affricate).

Spanish language

SpanishSpanish-languageCastilian
An extreme example occurs in Spanish, whose palatalized ('soft') g has ended up as from a long process where Latin became palatalized to (Late Latin) and then affricated to (Proto-Romance), deaffricated to (Old Spanish), devoiced to (16th century), and finally retracted to a velar, giving (c.
Spanish is marked by the palatalization of the Latin double consonants and (thus Latin

Raising (phonetics)

raisedraisinglower
Palatalization involves change in the place or manner of articulation of consonants, or the fronting or raising of vowels. Palatalization sometimes refers to vowel shifts, the fronting of a back vowel or raising of a front vowel.
This is a form of palatalization, and it also occurred in Polish, where it became a simple sibilant fricative (spelled or ) around the 16th century.

Phonological change

mergerphonemic splitmerged
Palatalization may result in a phonemic split, a historical change by which a phoneme becomes two new phonemes over time through palatalization.
Similarly, in the prehistory of Indo-Iranian, the velars */k/ and */g/ acquired distinctively palatal articulation before front vowels (*/e/, */i/, */ē/ */ī/), so that came to be pronounced and, but the phones and occurred only in that environment.

Old French

FrenchMedieval FrenchOF
A similar change is reconstructed in the history of Old French in which Bartsch's law turned open vowels into or after a palatalized velar consonant.

Bartsch's law

A similar change is reconstructed in the history of Old French in which Bartsch's law turned open vowels into or after a palatalized velar consonant.
This vowel, inherited from Vulgar Latin, underwent fronting and closure in stressed open syllables when preceded by a palatal or palatalized consonant.

Palatal consonant

Palatalpalatalspalatal consonants
In linguistics, palatalization is a sound change that either results in a palatal or palatalized consonant or a front vowel, or is triggered by one of them.

Polish language

PolishplPolish-language
A similar change has also happened in Polish and Belarusian.

Assimilation (phonology)

assimilationassimilatedassimilates
In some cases, palatalization involves assimilation or lenition.

Vowel shift

shiftedphonetic shiftvowel-change
Palatalization sometimes refers to vowel shifts, the fronting of a back vowel or raising of a front vowel.

Fronting (phonetics)

frontingfrontedFronting (phonology)
Palatalization involves change in the place or manner of articulation of consonants, or the fronting or raising of vowels. Palatalization sometimes refers to vowel shifts, the fronting of a back vowel or raising of a front vowel.
* Palatalization refers to a range of sound changes triggered by high or high-front vowels.

Japanese language

JapaneseJapanese-languageJp
Palatalization has played a major role in the history of English, and of other languages and language groups throughout the world, such as the Romance, Greek, Slavic, Baltic, Finnic, Swedish, Norwegian, Mordvinic, Samoyedic, Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Goidelic, Korean, Japanese, Chinese, Albanian, Arabic, and Micronesian languages. In Japanese, allophonic palatalization affected the dental plosives and, turning them into alveolo-palatal affricates and before, romanized as ⟨ch⟩ and ⟨j⟩ respectively.
For example, in the Japanese language up to and including the first half of the 20th century, the phonemic sequence was palatalized and realized phonetically as, approximately chi ; however, now and are distinct, as evidenced by words like tī "Western style tea" and chii "social status".

Attic Greek

AtticAttic dialectClassical Attic
In the Attic dialect before the Classical period, the back vowels were fronted to.
PIE *ky or *chy → Proto-Greek ts (palatalization) → Attic tt.

Slavic languages

SlavicSlavonicSlavic language
Palatalization has played a major role in the history of English, and of other languages and language groups throughout the world, such as the Romance, Greek, Slavic, Baltic, Finnic, Swedish, Norwegian, Mordvinic, Samoyedic, Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Goidelic, Korean, Japanese, Chinese, Albanian, Arabic, and Micronesian languages.
The extensive series of palatal consonants, along with the affricates *ts and *dz, developed through a series of palatalizations that happened during the Proto-Slavic period, from earlier sequences either of velar consonants followed by front vowels (e.g. *ke, *ki, *ge, *gi, *xe, and *xi), or of various consonants followed by *j (e.g. *tj, *dj, *sj, *zj, *rj, *lj, *kj, and *gj, where *j is the palatal approximant (, the sound of the English letter "y" in "yes" or "you").

Brazilian Portuguese

PortugueseBrazilianPortuguese (Brazil)
That would also be true about most dialects of Brazilian Portuguese but for the strong phonotactical resistancy of its native speakers that turn dental plosives into post-alveolar affricates even in loanwords: McDonald's.
=One of the most noticeable tendencies of modern BP is the palatalization of and by most regions, which are pronounced and (or and ), respectively, before.

Anglo-Frisian languages

Anglo-FrisianAnglo–FrisianAnglo Frisian
In Anglo-Frisian, the language that gave rise to English and the Frisian languages, the velar stops and the consonant cluster were palatalized in certain cases and became the sounds,,, and.

Geʽez

Ge'ezEthiopicGe'ez language
While in most Semitic languages, e.g. Aramaic, Hebrew, Ge'ez the Gimel represents a, Arabic is considered unique among them where the Gimel or Jīm was palatalized to an affricate or a fricative in most dialects from classical times.
The common way of negation is the prefix ʾi- which descends from ʾey- (which is attested in Axum inscriptions) from ʾay from Proto-Semitic *ʾal by palatalization.

Iotation

iotatediotifiediotified vowel
In Slavic languages, iotation is a form of palatalization that occurs when a consonant comes into contact with a palatal approximant from the succeeding phoneme.