Paleoanthropology

paleoanthropologistpaleoanthropologicalpaleoanthropologistspalaeoanthropologistpalaeoanthropologypalaeoanthropologistspaleoanthropologicpalaeoanthropologicalhominid paleontologyhuman evolution
Paleoanthropology or paleo-anthropology is a branch of anthropology with a human focus, which seeks to understand the early development of anatomically modern humans, a process known as hominization, through the reconstruction of evolutionary kinship lines within the family Hominidae, working from biological evidence (such as petrified skeletal remains, bone fragments, footprints) and cultural evidence (such as stone tools, artifacts, and settlement localities).wikipedia
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Hominization

anthropogenesisre-hominisation
Paleoanthropology or paleo-anthropology is a branch of anthropology with a human focus, which seeks to understand the early development of anatomically modern humans, a process known as hominization, through the reconstruction of evolutionary kinship lines within the family Hominidae, working from biological evidence (such as petrified skeletal remains, bone fragments, footprints) and cultural evidence (such as stone tools, artifacts, and settlement localities).
Hominization, also called anthropogenesis, refers to the process of becoming human, and is used in somewhat different contexts in the fields of paleontology and paleoanthropology, archeology, philosophy, and theology.

Biological anthropology

physical anthropologyphysical anthropologistbiological anthropologist
The field draws from and combines paleontology, biological anthropology, and cultural anthropology.
Anthropology expanded to include paleoanthropology and primatology.

Africa

African continentAfricanAfrican politics
Since the great apes were considered the closest relatives of human beings, based on morphological similarity, in the 19th century, it was speculated that the closest living relatives to humans were chimpanzees (genus Pan) and gorilla (genus Gorilla), and based on the natural range of these creatures, it was surmised that humans shared a common ancestor with African apes and that fossils of these ancestors would ultimately be found in Africa.
Africa is considered by most paleoanthropologists to be the oldest inhabited territory on Earth, with the human species originating from the continent.

Paleontology

paleontologistpalaeontologistpalaeontology
The field draws from and combines paleontology, biological anthropology, and cultural anthropology.
Paleozoologists may specialise in invertebrate paleontology, which deals with animals without backbones or in vertebrate palaeontology, dealing with fossils of animals with backbones, including fossil hominids (palaeoanthropology).

Human evolution

evolutionearly manevolution of humans
The science arguably began in the late 19th century when important discoveries occurred that led to the study of human evolution.
These searches were carried out by the Leakey family, with Louis Leakey and his wife Mary Leakey, and later their son Richard and daughter-in-law Meave, fossil hunters and paleoanthropologists.

Davidson Black

Black, Davidson
At the epicenter of excitement was Davidson Black, a Canadian-born anatomist working at Peking Union Medical College.
Davidson Black, FRS (July 25, 1884 – March 15, 1934) was a Canadian paleoanthropologist, best known for his naming of Sinanthropus pekinensis (now Homo erectus pekinensis).

Olduvai Gorge

OlduvaiLake OlduvaiOldevai Gorge
But with political instability and social unrest brewing in China, beginning in 1966, and major discoveries at Olduvai Gorge and East Turkana (Koobi Fora), the paleoanthropological spotlight shifted westward to East Africa.
The Olduvai Gorge or Oldupai Gorge in Tanzania is one of the most important paleoanthropological sites in the world; it has proven invaluable in furthering understanding of early human evolution.

Cenozoic Research Laboratory

The Zhoukoudian Project came into existence in the spring of 1927, and two years later, the Cenozoic Research Laboratory of the Geological Survey of China was formally established.
The Cenozoic Research Laboratory of the Geological Survey of China was established within the Peking Union Medical College in 1928 by Canadian paleoanthropologist Davidson Black and Chinese geologists Ding Wenjing and Weng Wenhao for the research and appraisal of Peking Man fossils unearthed at Zhoukoudian.

Phillip V. Tobias

Phillip TobiasPhilip TobiasPhillip Vallentine Tobias
Several anthropologists, such as Bernard Wood, Kevin Hunt and Phillip Tobias, have pronounced the savanna theory defunct.
Phillip Vallentine Tobias FRS (14 October 1925 – 7 June 2012) was a South African palaeoanthropologist and Professor Emeritus at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg.

Zhoukoudian

Dragon Bone HillChoukoutienPeking Man Site
The Zhoukoudian Project came into existence in the spring of 1927, and two years later, the Cenozoic Research Laboratory of the Geological Survey of China was formally established. It was he who, in 1918, discovered the sites around Zhoukoudian, a village about 50 kilometers southwest of Beijing.
Canadian paleoanthropologist Davidson Black, who was working for the Peking Union Medical College at the time, was excited by Andersson and Zdansky's find and applied to the Rockefeller Foundation for funding to undertake a systematic excavation of the site.

Franz Weidenreich

Dr WeidenreichWeidenreich
Franz Weidenreich came to Beijing soon after Black’s untimely death in 1934, and took charge of the study of the hominin specimens.
In 1935 he succeeded Canadian paleoanthropologist Davidson Black as honorary director of the Cenozoic Research Laboratory of the Geological Survey of China.

Lee Rogers Berger

Lee BergerLee R. BergerBerger
Lee Rogers Berger (born December 22, 1965) is an American-born South African paleoanthropologist and National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence.

Ian Tattersall

TattersallTattersall, I.
Ian Tattersall once noted that paleoanthropology is distinguished as the "branch of science [that] keeps its primary data secret."
Ian Tattersall (born 1945) is a British-born American paleoanthropologist and a curator emeritus with the American Museum of Natural History in New York City, New York.

Vratislav Mazák

MazákVratislav Mazak
In 1975, Colin Groves and Vratislav Mazák announced a new species of human they called Homo ergaster.
He specialised in paleoanthropology, mammalogy and taxonomy, and he was also a painter, often illustrating his books about animals and men.

Eugène Dubois

Eugene DuboisDuboisDubois, Marie Eugene Francoisthomas
Marie Eugène François Thomas Dubois (28 January 1858 – 16 December 1940) was a Dutch paleoanthropologist and geologist.

Donald Johanson

Donald C. JohansonDonald Carl JohansonInstitute for Human Origins
Donald Carl Johanson (born June 28, 1943) is an American paleoanthropologist.

Charles Lyell

Sir Charles LyellLyellSir Charles Lyell, 1st Baronet
Even many of Darwin's original supporters (such as Alfred Russel Wallace and Charles Lyell) balked at the idea that human beings could have evolved their apparently boundless mental capacities and moral sensibilities through natural selection.
Lyell's geological interests ranged from volcanoes and geological dynamics through stratigraphy, palaeontology, and glaciology to topics that would now be classified as prehistoric archaeology and paleoanthropology.

Louis Leakey

LouisLeakey FoundationL. S. B. Leakey
Louis Seymour Bazett Leakey (7 August 1903 – 1 October 1972) was a Kenyan paleoanthropologist and archaeologist whose work was important in demonstrating that humans evolved in Africa, particularly through discoveries made at Olduvai Gorge with his wife, fellow paleontologist Mary Leakey.

Meave Leakey

Maeve LeakeyMeaveMeave Epps
Meave G. Leakey (born Meave Epps on 28 July 1942 in London, England) is a British paleoanthropologist.

Mary Leakey

MaryDr. Mary Leakeyhis wife
Mary Douglas Leakey, FBA (née Nicol, 6 February 1913 – 9 December 1996) was a British paleoanthropologist who discovered the first fossilised Proconsul skull, an extinct ape which is now believed to be ancestral to humans.

Richard Leakey

RichardRichard E. LeakeyLeakey, R.
Richard Erskine Frere Leakey FRS (born 19 December 1944) is a Kenyan paleoanthropologist, conservationist, and politician.

André Leroi-Gourhan

Leroi-GourhanAndre Leroi-Gourhan
André Leroi-Gourhan (25 August 1911 – 19 February 1986) was a French archaeologist, paleontologist, paleoanthropologist, and anthropologist with an interest in technology and aesthetics and a penchant for philosophical reflection.

Erik Trinkaus

Trinkaus
Erik Trinkaus (born December 24, 1948) is a paleoanthropologist specialised on Neandertal biology and human evolution.

Milford H. Wolpoff

Milford WolpoffWolpoff
Milford Howell Wolpoff is a paleoanthropologist working as a professor of anthropology and adjunct associate research scientist, Museum of Anthropology, at the University of Michigan.

Tim D. White

Tim WhiteTimothy Douglas WhiteTimothy White
Tim D. White (born August 24, 1950) is an American paleoanthropologist and Professor of Integrative Biology at the University of California, Berkeley.