Paleolithic

PalaeolithicOld Stone AgePaleolithic AgePaleolithic EraPaleolithic periodPalaeolithic AgePalaeolithic eraPalaeolithic periodPalæolithicpaleo
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic, also called the Old Stone Age, is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c.wikipedia
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Pleistocene

Pleistocene epochLate PleistocenePleistocene era
undefined 3.3 million years ago, to the end of the Pleistocene c.
The end of the Pleistocene corresponds with the end of the last glacial period and also with the end of the Paleolithic age used in archaeology.

Upper Paleolithic

Upper Palaeolithic20,000 BCUpper
Humankind gradually evolved from early members of the genus Homo—such as Homo habilis, who used simple stone tools—into anatomically modern humans as well as behaviourally modern humans by the Upper Paleolithic. During the Upper Paleolithic, further inventions were made, such as the net or BP) bolas, the spear thrower ( BP), the bow and arrow ( or BP) and the oldest example of ceramic art, the Venus of Dolní Věstonice ( BP). The earliest known undisputed burial of a shaman (and by extension the earliest undisputed evidence of shamans and shamanic practices) dates back to the early Upper Paleolithic era ( BP) in what is now the Czech Republic.
The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.

Fishing

fishfishermenfished
The first evidence of human fishing is also noted, from artifacts in places such as Blombos cave in South Africa.
Fishing is an ancient practice that dates back to at least the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic period about 40,000 years ago.

Prehistoric technology

Stone Age technologytechnological prehistorytools
undefined 99% of human technological prehistory.
The Lower Paleolithic period was the earliest subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.

Stone tool

stone toolslithicstone axe
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic, also called the Old Stone Age, is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c.
He assigned to them relative dates: Modes 1 and 2 to the Lower Palaeolithic, 3 to the Middle Palaeolithic, 4 to the Advanced and 5 to the Mesolithic.

Paleo-Indians

Paleo-IndianPaleoindianPaleoindians
During the late Upper Paleolithic (Latest Pleistocene) BP, the Beringia land bridge between Asia and North America was blocked by ice, which may have prevented early Paleo-Indians such as the Clovis culture from directly crossing Beringia to reach the Americas.
The term "Paleo-Indians" applies specifically to the lithic period in the Western Hemisphere and is distinct from the term "Paleolithic".

Prehistory

prehistoricprehistoric timesprehistorian
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic, also called the Old Stone Age, is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c.
Although there were several species of human beings during the Paleolithic, by the Neolithic only Homo sapiens sapiens remained.

Stone Age

Stonestone-ageStoneage
It derives from Greek: παλαιός, palaios, "old"; and λίθος, lithos, "stone", meaning "old age of the stone" or "Old Stone Age".
By then, the dates of the Early Stone Age, or Paleolithic, and Late Stone Age, or Neolithic (neo = new), were fairly solid and were regarded by Goodwin as absolute.

Archaeology

archaeologistarchaeologicalarchaeologists
Nearly all of our knowledge of Paleolithic human culture and way of life comes from archaeology and ethnographic comparisons to modern hunter-gatherer cultures such as the !Kung San who live similarly to their Paleolithic predecessors.
Prehistory includes over 99% of the human past, from the Paleolithic until the advent of literacy in societies across the world.

Infanticide

Sex-selective infanticideexposedhave been killed
This was most likely due to low body fat, infanticide, women regularly engaging in intense endurance exercise, late weaning of infants, and a nomadic lifestyle.
Comparative anthropologists have calculated that 50% of female newborn babies were killed by their parents during the Paleolithic era.

Hand axe

bifacehandaxebifacial
Lower Paleolithic humans used a variety of stone tools, including hand axes and choppers.
It is characteristic of the lower Acheulean and middle Palaeolithic (Mousterian) periods.

Middle Paleolithic

Middle PalaeolithicMiddle200,000 to 50,000 BC
However, the use of fire only became common in the societies of the following Middle Stone Age and Middle Paleolithic. Early examples of artistic expression, such as the Venus of Tan-Tan and the patterns found on elephant bones from Bilzingsleben in Thuringia, may have been produced by Acheulean tool users such as Homo erectus prior to the start of the Middle Paleolithic period.
The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia.

Lower Paleolithic

Lower PalaeolithicEarly Stone AgeLower
The social organization of the earliest Paleolithic (Lower Paleolithic) societies remains largely unknown to scientists, though Lower Paleolithic hominins such as Homo habilis and Homo erectus are likely to have had more complex social structures than chimpanzee societies.
The Lower Paleolithic (or Lower Palaeolithic) is the earliest subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.

Spear

spearsspearmenSpearman
It allowed Middle Paleolithic humans to create stone tipped spears, which were the earliest composite tools, by hafting sharp, pointy stone flakes onto wooden shafts.
From circa 200,000 BCE onwards, Middle Paleolithic humans began to make complex stone blades with flaked edges which were used as spear heads.

Bilzingsleben (Paleolithic site)

Bilzingsleben BilzingslebenBilizingsleben
Early examples of artistic expression, such as the Venus of Tan-Tan and the patterns found on elephant bones from Bilzingsleben in Thuringia, may have been produced by Acheulean tool users such as Homo erectus prior to the start of the Middle Paleolithic period.
Bilzingsleben (Fundplatz Bilzingsleben, lit. discovery site Bilzingsleben) is a former stone quarry in Thuringia, Germany, notable for its wealth of palaeolithic human fossils and artifacts.

Hunter-gatherer

hunter-gatherershunting and gatheringhunter gatherer
The economy of a typical Paleolithic society was a hunter-gatherer economy.
Hunting-gathering was the common human mode of subsistence throughout the Paleolithic, but the observation of current-day hunters and gatherers does not necessarily reflect Paleolithic societies; the hunter-gatherer cultures examined today have had much contact with modern civilization and do not represent "pristine" conditions found in uncontacted peoples.

Venus of Dolní Věstonice

clayDolni VestoniceDolní Věstonice
During the Upper Paleolithic, further inventions were made, such as the net or BP) bolas, the spear thrower ( BP), the bow and arrow ( or BP) and the oldest example of ceramic art, the Venus of Dolní Věstonice ( BP).
It was found at the Paleolithic site Dolní Věstonice in the Moravian basin south of Brno, in the base of Děvín Mountain, 549 m. This figurine and a few others from locations nearby are the oldest known ceramic articles in the world.

Spear-thrower

atlatlspear throwerspear throwers
During the Upper Paleolithic, further inventions were made, such as the net or BP) bolas, the spear thrower ( BP), the bow and arrow ( or BP) and the oldest example of ceramic art, the Venus of Dolní Věstonice ( BP). For example, microliths or small stone tools or points were invented around 70,000–65,000 BP and were essential to the invention of bows and spear throwers in the following Upper Paleolithic.
Wooden darts were known at least since the Middle Paleolithic (Schöningen, Torralba, Clacton-on-Sea and Kalambo Falls).

Ochre

red ochreochraceousyellow ochre
Much evidence exists that humans took part in long-distance trade between bands for rare commodities (such as ochre, which was often used for religious purposes such as ritual ) and raw materials, as early as 120,000 years ago in Middle Paleolithic.
In Wales, the paleolithic burial called the Red Lady of Paviland from its coating of red ochre has been dated to around 33,000 years before present.

Lion

lionsAfrican lionPanthera leo
However, this hypothesis fails to explain the existence of animals such as saber-toothed cats and lions, which were not hunted for food, and the existence of half-human, half-animal beings in cave paintings.

Czech Republic

CzechCZEthe Czech Republic
The earliest known undisputed burial of a shaman (and by extension the earliest undisputed evidence of shamans and shamanic practices) dates back to the early Upper Paleolithic era ( BP) in what is now the Czech Republic.
Archaeologists have found evidence of prehistoric human settlements in the area, dating back to the Paleolithic era.

Homo erectus

H. erectusDmanisi ManPithecanthropus erectus'' (later redesignated ''Homo erectus'')
Early examples of artistic expression, such as the Venus of Tan-Tan and the patterns found on elephant bones from Bilzingsleben in Thuringia, may have been produced by Acheulean tool users such as Homo erectus prior to the start of the Middle Paleolithic period. East Asian fossils from this period are typically placed in the genus Homo erectus.
The Paleolithic Age (Old Stone Age) of prehistoric human history and industry is dated from 2.6 million years ago to about 10,000 years ago; thus it closely coincides with the Pleistocene epoch of geologic time, which is 2.58 million to 11,700 years ago.

Caveman

cavementroglodytecavewoman
A caveman is a stock character representative of primitive man in the Paleolithic.

Venus figurines

Venus figurinefigurineVenus" statue
Venus figurines have evoked similar controversy.
Some human bodies from the Palaeolithic era are found similarly covered, so it is assumed this colour had a significant meaning in their culture even though we do not know what.

Paleolithic diet

paleo dietPaleolithic lifestylepaleo
Although the term "paleolithic diet", without references to a specific timeframe or locale, is sometimes used with an implication that most humans shared a certain diet during the entire era, that is not entirely accurate.
The Paleolithic diet, Paleo diet, caveman diet, or stone-age diet is a modern fad diet requiring the sole or predominant eating of foods presumed to have been available to humans during the Paleolithic era.