Palestinian nationalism

PalestinianPalestinian nationalistPalestinian causepro-PalestinianPalestine questionPalestinian national movementnationalistPalestinian liberationPalestinian movementnationalism
Palestinian nationalism is the national movement of the Palestinian people for self-determination in and sovereignty over Palestine.wikipedia
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Palestinians

PalestinianPalestinian ArabPalestinian people
Palestinian nationalism is the national movement of the Palestinian people for self-determination in and sovereignty over Palestine.
The history of a distinct Palestinian national identity is a disputed issue amongst scholars.

Peasants' revolt in Palestine

1834 Arab revolt in PalestinePeasants' Revolt1834 peasants' revolt
Baruch Kimmerling and Joel Migdal consider the 1834 Arab revolt in Palestine as the first formative event of the Palestinian people, whereas Benny Morris attests that the Arabs in Palestine remained part of a larger Pan-Islamist or Pan-Arab national movement.
However, Kimmerling and Joel S. Migdal state that the revolt was a formative event for the Palestinian sense of nationhood in that it brought together disparate groups against a common enemy.

Jerusalem

Jerusalem, IsraelAl-QudsQuds
Starting in May 1834 the rebels took many cities, among them Jerusalem, Hebron and Nablus.
Given the city's central position in both Jewish nationalism (Zionism) and Palestinian nationalism, the selectivity required to summarize some 5,000 years of inhabited history is often influenced by ideological bias or background (see Historiography and nationalism).

Nahda

Al-NahdaArab RenaissanceAl Nahda
This development is often seen as connected to the wider reformist trend known as al-Nahda ("awakening", sometimes called "the Arab renaissance"), which in the late 19th century brought about a redefinition of Arab cultural and political identities with the unifying feature of Arabic.
The main other example of the late al-Nahda era is the emerging Palestinian nationalism, which was set apart from Syrian nationalism by Jewish immigration to Mandatory Palestine and the resulting sense of Palestinian particularism.

Rashid Khalidi

Khalidi, RashidRashid I. KhalidiRasheed Khalidi
In his 1997 book, Palestinian Identity: The Construction of Modern National Consciousness, historian Rashid Khalidi notes that the archaeological strata that denote the history of Palestine—encompassing the Biblical, Roman, Byzantine, Umayyad, Fatimid, Crusader, Ayyubid, Mamluk and Ottoman periods—form part of the identity of the modern-day Palestinian people, as they have come to understand it over the last century, but derides the efforts of some Palestinian nationalists to attempt to "anachronistically" read back into history a nationalist consciousness that is in fact "relatively modern."
Nevertheless, Palestinian Identity was the first to demonstrate substantive Palestinian nationalism in the early Mandatory period.

Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni

Abdul Kader HusseiniAbd al-Qader al-HusseiniAbd al-Qadir
Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, a leader of the revolt, was a member of the Palestine Arab Party who had served as its Secretary-General and had become editor-in-chief of the party's paper Al-Liwa’ as well as of other newspapers, including Al-Jami’a Al-Islamiyya.
Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, also spelled Abd al-Qader al-Husseini (1907 – 8 April 1948) was a Palestinian Arab nationalist and fighter who in late 1933 founded the secret militant group known as the Organization for Holy Struggle (Munathamat al-Jihad al-Muqaddas), which he and Hasan Salama commanded as the Army of the Holy War (Jaysh al-Jihad al-Muqaddas) during the 1936–39 Arab revolt and during the 1948 war.

Nablus

NeapolisFlavia NeapolisNabulus
Starting in May 1834 the rebels took many cities, among them Jerusalem, Hebron and Nablus.
A policy of conscription and new taxation was instituted which led to a revolt organized by the a'ayan (notables) of Nablus, Hebron and the Jerusalem-Jaffa area.

Al-Husayni clan

al-HusayniHusaynial-Husseini
The al-Husayni family were a major force in rebelling against Muhammad Ali who governed Egypt and Palestine in defiance of the Ottoman Empire.
The clan founded and led many Palestinian Arab Islamist groups such as the Palestine Arab Party and the Arab Higher Committee.

Khalil Beidas

Khalil Baydas
Foster later revised his view in a 2016 piece published in Palestine Square, arguing that already in 1898 Khalil Beidas used the term "Palestinian" to describe the region's Arab inhabitants in the preface to a book he translated from Russian to Arabic.
Beidas' was a main proponent of the Palestinian national movement, through his journal Al-Nāfa'is as well as through a number of public speeches and articles in major Arabic (Egyptian) newspapers such as Al-Ahram and Al-Muqattam.

Arab nationalism

Arab nationalistArab nationalistsnationalist
While Arab nationalism, at least in an early form, and Syrian nationalism were the dominant tendencies along with continuing loyalty to the Ottoman state, Palestinian politics were marked by a reaction to foreign predominance and the growth of foreign immigration, particularly Zionist.
Al-Husayni, who leaned more towards Palestinian nationalism, was instrumental in organizing the pan-Arab Bloudan Conference on 9 September 1937 in Syria which gathered 524 delegates from across the Arab world, although al-Husayni himself was not in attendance.

Fatah

Al Fatahal-FatahFatah Movement
The Fatah movement, which espoused a Palestinian nationalist ideology in which Palestinians would be liberated by the actions of Palestinian Arabs, was founded in 1954 by members of the Palestinian diaspora—principally professionals working in the Gulf States who had been refugees in Gaza and had gone on to study in Cairo or Beirut.
Fatah, formerly the Palestinian National Liberation Movement''', is a Palestinian nationalist social democratic political party and the largest faction of the confederated multi-party Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and the second-largest party in the Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC).

Amin al-Husseini

Haj Amin al-HusseiniMohammad Amin al-HusayniAmin al-Husayni
In 1948, after Jordan had occupied Jerusalem, King Abdullah of Jordan removed Hajj Amīn al-Husayni from the post of Grand Mufti of Jerusalem and banned him from entering Jerusalem.
Opponents of Palestinian nationalism have used Husseini's wartime residence and propaganda activities in Nazi Germany to associate the Palestinian national movement with European-style anti-Semitism.

Khalil al-Wazir

Abu JihadKhalil WazirTunis Raid
The founders included Yasser Arafat who was head of the General Union of Palestinian Students (GUPS) (1952–56) in Cairo University, Salah Khalaf, Khalil al-Wazir, Khaled Yashruti was head of the GUPS in Beirut (1958–62).
Khalil Ibrahim al-Wazir (خليل إبراهيم الوزير, also known by his kunya Abu Jihad أبو جهاد—"Jihad's Father"; 10 October 1935 – 16 April 1988) was a Palestinian leader and co-founder of the nationalist party Fatah.

1941 Iraqi coup d'état

coup d'étatoverthrown in 1941coup d'état in Iraq
In 1938, Abd al-Qadir was exiled and in 1939 fled to Iraq where he took part in the Rashid Ali al-Gaylani coup.
Among the key figures to arrive was the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin al-Husseini, the Palestinian Arab nationalist leader of the failed revolt.

Hamas

Hamas charterChange and ReformHamas (Islamic Resistance Movement)
During the intifada Hamas replaced the monopoly of the PLO as sole representative of the Palestinian people.
The wing takes its name from the prewar militant Palestinian nationalist Sheikh Izz ad-Din al-Qassam, though Hamas cells sometimes refer to themselves as "Students of Ayyash", "Students of the Engineer", or "Yahya Ayyash Units".

Palestinian political violence

Palestinian militant acts and operationsPalestinian terrorismPalestinian terrorist
Palestinian political violence refers to acts of violence or terror motivated by Palestinian nationalism.

Izz ad-Din al-Qassam

al-QassamIzaddin al-QassamIzz al-Din al-Qassam
Izz ad-Din al-Qassam established the Black Hand gang in 1935.
He also saw the brewing conflict in Palestine as a religious struggle, unlike most Palestinian leaders who advocated a secular and nationalist response.

Falastin

FilastinFalastin newspaperFalasteen
National Economic Trade Association) were reported in the newspaper Filastin in June 1914 by letter from R. Abu al-Sal’ud.

Black Hand (Mandatory Palestine)

Black HandBlack Hand Gangfight the British and the Zionists
Izz ad-Din al-Qassam established the Black Hand gang in 1935.
The Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades is the military wing of the Palestinian Islamist political organisation Hamas created in 1992.

1920 Nebi Musa riots

1920 Palestine riots1920Nebi Musa riots
According to Sir Louis Bols, great pressure was brought to bear on the military administration from Zionist leaders and officials such as David Yellin, to have the Mayor of Jerusalem, Mousa Kazzim al-Husayni, dismissed, given his presence in the Nabi Musa riots of the previous March.
Furthermore, the riots increased the feeling of Palestinian nationalism within the Palestinian Arab community.

Pan-Arabism

pan-Arabpan-ArabistArabism
Baruch Kimmerling and Joel Migdal consider the 1834 Arab revolt in Palestine as the first formative event of the Palestinian people, whereas Benny Morris attests that the Arabs in Palestine remained part of a larger Pan-Islamist or Pan-Arab national movement.
Once Abdallah was assassinated by a Palestinian nationalist in 1951, the vision of Greater Syria was dropped from the Jordanian agenda.

First Intifada

IntifadaFirst Palestinian IntifadaPalestinian Intifada
The First Intifada (1987–93) would prove another watershed in Palestinian nationalism, as it brought the Palestinians of the West Bank and Gaza to the forefront of the struggle.

Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine

DFLPPopular Democratic Front for the Liberation of PalestineDemocratic Front
The disturbances initially spontaneous soon came under local leadership from groups and organizations loyal to the PLO that operated within the Occupied Territories; Fatah, the Popular Front, the Democratic Front and the Palestine Communist Party.

1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine

1936–39 Arab revolt in PalestineArab revoltArab revolt in Palestine
The Great revolt 1936-1939 was an uprising by Palestinian Arabs in the British Mandate of Palestine in protest against mass Jewish immigration.