Palladian architecture

A villa with a superimposed portico, from Book IV of Palladio's I quattro libri dell'architettura, in an English translation published in London, 1736.
Plan for Palladio's Villa Rotonda. Features of the house were to become incorporated in numerous Palladian style houses throughout Europe over the following centuries.
"True Palladianism" in Villa Godi by Palladio from I quattro libri dell'architettura. The flanking wings are agricultural buildings not part of the villa. In the 18th century, evolved as enfilades, they became an important part of Palladianism.
A corner of the Basilica Palladiana, Vicenza, with Palladian windows
Claydon House in Buckinghamshire (begun 1757); here the Venetian window in the central bay is surrounded by a unifying blind arch. This house was intended to be one of two flanking wings to a vast Palladian house; the scheme was never completed.
Inigo Jones was the designer of the Queen's House, Greenwich, begun in 1616, the first English Palladian house.
English Palladianism: Stourhead House, East facade, based on Palladio's Villa Emo. Image is from Colen Campbell's Vitruvius Britannicus
English Palladianism. Woburn Abbey, designed by Burlington's student Henry Flitcroft in 1746. Palladio's central temple is no longer free standing, the wings are now elevated to near equal importance, and the cattle sheds terminating Palladio's design are now clearly part of the façade.
Russborough, Co. Wicklow: a notable example of Irish Palladianism
American Palladianism: The Rotunda at the University of Virginia, designed in the Palladian manner by Thomas Jefferson.
The Hammond-Harwood House was modeled after the Villa Pisani at Montagnana from The Four Books of Architecture by Andrea Palladio
Nova Scotia Legislature Building, sandstone, 1819
Portrait of Andrea Palladio from the 17th century

European architectural style derived from and inspired by the designs of the Venetian architect Andrea Palladio .

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Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington

Anglo-Irish architect and noble often called the "Apollo of the Arts" and the "Architect Earl".

Portrait of the 3rd Earl of Burlington by Jonathan Richardson, c. 1718
Portrait of Richard Boyle as a boy, with his sister Lady Jane Boyle, c. 1700
Mezzotint of Burlington
Dorothy Savile, Lady Dorothy Boyle (1724–1742), Countess of Euston, and Her Sister Lady Charlotte Boyle (1731–1754), Later Marchioness of Hartington, National Trust, Hardwick Hall. Supplied by The Public Catalogue Foundation.
Palazzo facade drawn by Andrea Palladio, purchased in Italy by Inigo Jones. Burlington purchased it from the heirs of Jones' pupil John Webb and adapted it for the London house of General Wade. Note the Palladian window.
Colen Campbell's Burlington House as it was in 1855, before a third storey was added.
Plate 72, Cross-section of Octagon at Chiswick House, Richard Boyle, 1727, V&A Museum no. 12957:33.
Chiswick House Entrance Front
Chiswick House Garden Front
Chiswick House south western view
Westminster School Dormitory
Burlington House
Holkham Hall
Tottenham House

His great interests in life were architecture and landscaping, and he is remembered for being a builder and a patron of architects, craftsmen and landscapers, Indeed, he is credited with bringing Palladian architecture to Britain and Ireland.

Venetian window

Venetian window at Holkham Hall in Norfolk, England, c. 1734-64
A corner of the Basilica Palladiana, Vicenza, with Palladian window openings to the loggia.
Pair of Palladian windows on wings of south front of Burlington House, Westminster, the earliest appearance of the element in Britain
A Venetian window, with blind sides, designed by Isaac de Caus (d.1648) circa 1647, south front of Wilton House, Wiltshire, England
Claydon House (begun 1757), here the Venetian window in the central bay is surrounded by a unifying blind arch

A Venetian window (also known as a Serlian window) is a large tripartite window which is a key element in Palladian architecture.

Burlington House

Building on Piccadilly in Mayfair, London.

Burlington House from Jan Kip and Leonard Knyff's Britannia Illustrata, 1707
One of James Gibbs's colonnades at Burlington House in a watercolour, c. 1806–08
Photograph of the original main block of Burlington House, before the addition of the top storey
The façade of the original main block in the 1870s, showing additional storey and colonnade added as part of the expansion of the complex
The street façade of the Piccadilly wing
One of the rooms in the west wing used by the Society of Antiquaries
The courtyard of Burlington House
Sometimes the courtyard hosts temporary sculptures or exhibitions, such as this one in 2009

It was originally a private Neo-Palladian mansion owned by the Earls of Burlington and was expanded in the mid-19th century after being purchased by the British government.

Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff

Painter and architect in Prussia.

Officer, architect and painter Georg Wenzeslaus Baron von Knobelsdorff, 1737 (by Antoine Pesne, 1738)
Design for the Apollo Temple in Neuruppin
View of Rheinsberg 1737, excerpt from a Knobelsdorff painting
Rheinsberg Castle around 1740, excerpt from an engraving
Berlin Opera House and St. Hedwig's Cathedral in 1850
The Tiergarten Park in Berlin, 1765
Sanssouci Palace and the Great Fountain
Schloss Charlottenburg, Golden Gallery. Detail
Frederick the Great's sketch showing his intentions for Sanssouci Palace
The deer garden colonnade in Sanssouci Park, which did not survive
Proposal for the Neptune grotto in Sanssouci Park

Knobelsdorff was influenced as an architect by French Baroque Classicism and by Palladian architecture.

Rustication (architecture)

Range of masonry techniques used in classical architecture giving visible surfaces a finish texture that contrasts with smooth, squared-block masonry called ashlar.

Two different styles of rustication in the Palazzo Medici-Riccardi in Florence; smooth-faced above and rough-faced below.
Extreme Mannerist "cyclopian" rustication at the Palace of Fontainebleau
Illustration to Serlio, rusticated doorway of the type now called a Gibbs surround, 1537
Courtyard of Somerset House in London, mostly smooth-faced "V" joints, but with vermiculated square blocks around the Gibbs surround to the door.
Regular smooth-faced rustication (left) turns to horizontal banded rustication at the corner of Castle Howard in North Yorkshire, England.
Two adjacent vermiculated blocks showing rather different interpretations of the pattern.
Sicilian Baroque pilasters with two types of prismatic rustication against a smooth background at the University of Catania
Simple smooth-faced rustication in wood at Mount Vernon; an imitation of European style popular in America
"V" joints and roughened faces within a flat margin, Giulio Romano for his house in Mantua
Vermiculation at 286 Boulevard Saint-Germain, Paris
An unusual pattern book of effects in the Loggia di Giulio Romano in Mantua
"Frost-work" on the Diana Fountain, London, c. 1690
Smooth-faced rustication with the blocks dropping back to the wall at 90°, rather than a "V" chamfer
Quoins only, with long and short strips, on a Czech railway station
Banded, with "elbows" and very wide joints, Cleveland, Ohio
Banded rustication in a wholly modern context, Hattiesburg, Mississippi
Late 15th-century gateway to the Palacio de Jabalquinto, with small "diamonds" erupting from ashlar at the sides
Palazzo dei Diamanti, Ferrara
Casa dos Bicos, Lisbon
"Diamond rustication" in Germany

During the 18th century, following the Palladian revival, rustication was widely used on the ground floors of large buildings, as its contrived appearance of simplicity and solidity contrasted well to the carved ornamental stonework and columns of the floors above: "Rustication became almost obligatory in all 18th- and 19th-century public buildings in Europe and the USA".

Wanstead House

Mansion built to replace the earlier Wanstead Hall.

The Neo-Palladian Wanstead House, commissioned in 1715 by Sir Richard Child from a design by Colen Campbell, viewed across the Basin from due west standing at the entrance gates. Illustration from Nathaniel Spencer, The Complete English Traveller, London 1771
The original design for the west front of Wanstead House by Colen Campbell. The upper stories on the wings were omitted in the completed building. The facade extended over 200 ft. (60 m).
The Assembly at Wanstead House by Hogarth painted c. 1728–1732.
Giltwood scroll-foot seat, early Georgian, from Wanstead House, sold by Christie's in 2008 for £135,000. It may be of the set of the chair on which Earl Tylney is seated in the Hogarth painting
William Pole-Tylney-Long-Wellesley, c. 1812.
Map of Wanstead House and grounds from John Rocque's map printed in Environs of London, 1745. Today's Wanstead Park is shown in green. The house stood at 51.56962°N, 0.0337°W
One of a pair of surviving piers of the entrance gate to Wanstead House, with monogram of Richard Child
Pastoral scene before Wanstead House and Basin, by William Havell, 1815
The Temple in Wanstead Park, built c. 1760

In 1715 Child commissioned the Scottish architect Colen Campbell to design a grand mansion in the then emerging Neo-Palladian style, to replace the former house, and to rival contemporary mansions such as Blenheim Palace.

Gothic Revival architecture

Architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England.

Sint-Petrus-en-Pauluskerk in Ostend (Belgium), built between 1899 and 1908
The Cathedral of St. John the Baptist, Savannah (Georgia, United States)
Tom Tower, Oxford, by Sir Christopher Wren 1681–82, to match the Tudor surroundings
Strawberry Hill House, Twickenham, London; 1749 by Horace Walpole (1717–1797). "The seminal house of the Gothic Revival in England", it established the "Strawberry Hill Gothic" style
Basilica of Sainte Clotilde Sanctuary, Paris, France
The study at Abbotsford, created for Sir Walter Scott whose novels popularised the Medieval period from which the Gothic Revival drew its inspiration
Gothic façade of the Parlement de Rouen in France, built between 1499 and 1508, which later inspired neo-Gothic revival in the 19th century
Saint Clotilde Basilica completed 1857, Paris
Cologne Cathedral, finally completed in 1880 although construction began in 1248
The Canadian Parliament Buildings from the Ottawa River, built between 1859 and 1876
The Palace of Westminster (1840–1876), designed by Charles Barry & Augustus Pugin
Venetian Gothic in Baku, Azerbaijan.
Exeter College, Oxford Chapel
Carcassonne – Viollet-le-Duc restored the citadel from 1853.
Cast-iron Gothic tracery supports a bridge by Calvert Vaux, in Central Park, New York City
Trinity College, Hartford: Burges's revised, three-quadrangle, masterplan
Church of St Avila, Bodega, California
Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus in Mumbai, India
Construction of Washington National Cathedral began in 1907 and was completed in 1990.
Liverpool Cathedral, whose construction ran from 1903 to 1978
Schwerin Castle, Schwerin, Germany (1845–1857)
Schadau Castle, Thun, Switzerland (1846–1854)
Wrocław Główny railway station, Wrocław, Poland (1855–1857)
New Town Hall, Munich, Germany (1867–1905)
St Pancras railway station, London, England (1868)
Town Hall, Manchester, England (1868–1877)
City Hall, Vienna, Austria (1872–1883)
Sturdza Palace, Iași County, Romania (1880-1904)
Hungarian Parliament Building, Budapest, Hungary (1885–1904)
Tower Bridge, London, England (1886–1894)
The Neo-Manueline (Portuguese Late Gothic) Rossio Station, Lisbon, Portugal (1891)
Co-cathedral, Osijek, Croatia (1898)
Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, Moscow, Russia (1901–1911), an example of Brick Gothic revival
Basilica of Our Lady Immaculate, Guelph, Ontario, Canada
Cathedral of Santa Ana (El Salvador)
Templo Expiatorio del Santísimo Sacramento Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico
Cathedral of Our Lady of Guadalupe, Zamora, Mexico
Rockefeller College, Princeton, USA
St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York, USA
Centre Block of the Canadian Parliament Buildings, Ottawa, Ontario
Basilica of Our Lady of Luján, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina
The São Paulo Metropolitan Cathedral, São Paulo, Brazil
Basilica del Salvador, in Santiago, Chile
The Las Lajas Sanctuary in southern Colombia
Basílica del Voto Nacional, Quito, Ecuador
St Paul's Cathedral, Melbourne, Australia
St Patrick's Cathedral, Melbourne, Australia
Sacred Heart Cathedral, Bendigo, Australia
St Mary's Cathedral, Sydney
Christchurch Cathedral, Christchurch, New Zealand
Otago Boys High School, Otago, New Zealand
Church of the Saviour, Baku, Azerbaijan
Basilica of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, Pondicherry, India
Jakarta Cathedral, Indonesia
Basílica Menor de San Sebastián, Manila, Philippines
Sacred Heart Cathedral, Guangzhou, China
Government College University, Lahore, Pakistan

Most buildings were still largely in the established Palladian style, but some houses incorporated external features of the Scots baronial style.

Neoclassical architecture

Architectural style produced by the Neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century in Italy and France.

The Basilica Palladiana in Vicenza (Veneto, Italy)
Château de Malmaison, 1800, room for the Empress Joséphine, on the cusp between Directoire and Empire style
Second Bank of the United States, Philadelphia, 1824.
The L'Enfant Plan for Washington, D.C., as revised by Andrew Ellicott in 1792.
The neoclassical Helsinki Cathedral from the 19th century, near the Senate Square in Helsinki, Finland.
Parisian apartment building on Rue de Rivoli. The name of the street comes from Napoleon's victory over the Austrians at the Battle of Rivoli (1797)
Széchenyi Chain Bridge, Budapest by William Tierney Clark, 1840–1849
The Rotunda of Mosta, built between 1833 and 1860
St. Anne's Church, Warsaw
The Museo del Prado in Madrid, by Juan de Villanueva
Altes Museum in Berlin (finished in 1830)
The east façade of Stourhead House, based on Palladio's Villa Emo
Russborough House (County Wicklow, Ireland) a notable example of Irish Palladianism,<ref>{{cite web|url=https://iarc.ie/exhibitions/previous-exhibitions/andrea-palladio-1508-1580/|title=Andrea Palladio 1508–1580|publisher=Irish Architectural Archive|date=2010|access-date=23 September 2018}}</ref> 1741–1755, by Richard Cassels
Woburn Abbey (Woburn, Bedfordshire, England), 1746, by Henry Flitcroft
thumb|Nova Scotia Legislature Building from Halifax (Nova Scotia, Canada), 1819
West facade of the Petit Trianon (Versailles, France)
The Panthéon (Paris), 1758–1790, by Jacques-Germain Soufflot (1713–1780) and Jean-Baptiste Rondelet (1743–1829)
The University of Virginia Rotunda, an example of the Neoclassical architecture Thomas Jefferson built on campus.
The main building of the Academy of Athens, one of Theophil Hansen's "Trilogy" in central Athens (1859)
Legislative Building Manila
The Blue Salon of the Château de Compiègne (Compiègne), an example of an Empire interior
Detail of the ceiling of the Arc de Triomphe from Paris
Design for a room in the Etruscan or Pompeian style, from 1833, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
Dining room of the Centralhotel (Berlin), designed in 1881 by von der Hude & Hennicke
The Reading Room of the Bibliothèque Mazarine (Paris)
The Propyläen (Munich, Germany)
The British Museum (London)
The Friedrich-von-Thiersch hall of the Kurhaus (Wiesbaden, Germany)
The Royal Scottish Academy (Edinburgh, Scotland)
The Circus (Bath, Somerset, England), 1754–1768, by John Wood, the Elder
Bedroom in Harewood House (Harewood, West Yorkshire, England), 1759–1771, by Robert Adam
Kedleston Hall (Kedleston, Derbyshire, England) based on the Arch of Constantine in Rome, the 1760s, by Robert Adam
Interior of Syon House (London) with Ionic columns and gilded statues, 1767–1775, by Robert Adam
Dining room of Syon House, with a complex ceiling
The General Register House (Edinburgh, Scotland), 1774–1788, by Robert Adam
alt=View upwards of street buildings with green domed roofs|Buildings in Lower O'Connell Street (Dublin) constructed between 1918 and 1923 in the highly refined and aesthetically restrained style typical of the Irish capital
The central courtyard of Somerset House (London), 1776, by Sir William Chambers
Ionic Temple at the Chiswick House (London), an example of English landscape garden
The Greek hexastyle portico of the General Post Office (Dublin) completed in 1818
The western front of St George's Hall in Liverpool from St. John's Gardens
Dublin's Custom House
Parliament Buildings, Northern Ireland (1933)
Boudoir de la Reine of the Palace of Fontainebleau (Fontainbleau)
Château de Bagatelle (Paris), a small Neoclassical château, 1777, by François-Joseph Bélanger
Stairway of the Grand Theater of Bordeaux, 1780, by Victor Louis
The Palais de la Légion d'Honneur (Paris), 1782–1787, by Pierre Rousseau
Cabinet doré of Marie-Antoinette at the Palace of Versailles (1783)
Église de la Madeleine (Paris), 1807–1828, by Pierre-Alexandre Vignon
Empress's bedroom from the Château de Malmaison, another Empire interior
The Vendôme Column (Paris), modelled after Trajan's Column, 1810
The Guimet Museum (Paris), by Jules Chatron
The Old Royal Palace, completed in 1843
The National Library of Greece designed by Theophil von Hansen (1888)
The National and Capodistrian University of Athens (1843)
The Zappeion (1888)
The Numismatic Museum of Athens or Iliou Melathron built for Heinrich Schliemann by Ernst Ziller (1880)
The Presidential Mansion (formerly the Crown Prince's Palace) in Athens built by Ernst Ziller
Butler Library at Columbia University in New York City (finished in 1934)
The United States Capitol (finished in 1800)
Federal Hall National Memorial
Jefferson Memorial in Washington D.C (1939-1943)
The Palacio de Minería in Mexico, built between 1797 and 1813 by the Spaniard Manuel Tolsá<ref name="museu.ms">{{cite web|url=http://museu.ms/museum/details/17596/museo-manuel-tols-palacio-de-minera-de-la-fi-unam|title=Museo Manuel Tolsá - Palacio de Minería de la FI UNAM|language=es|website=museu.ms}}</ref>
The Palacio del Marqués del Apartado from Mexico City, built 1795–1805 by Manuel Tolsá
The Palacio de Gobierno (Nuevo León)
Hospicio Cabañas (Guadalajara), built between 1805–1845, is one of the oldest and largest hospital complexes in the Americas.
San José Iturbide parish, built in 1866 by Ramón Ramírez y Arangoiti<ref name="iturbide.travel">{{cite web|url=https://iturbide.travel/datos-curiosos-de-la-parroquia-de-san-jose-iturbide/|language=es|website=iturbide.travel|title=Datos curiosos de la Parroquia de San José Iturbide|date=10 July 2019}}</ref>
Palacio de La Moneda from Santiago de Chile (1784-1805) by Joaquín Toesca
Metropolitan Cathedral of Santiago (Chile) (1748-1899) by Joaquín Toesca and Ignacio Cremonesi
Palacio de Carondelet (Quito, Ecuador) built between (1611–1801 by Antonio García)
Capitolio Nacional (Bogotá, Colombia) (1848–1926 by Thomas Reed)
Primatial Cathedral of Bogotá (Colombia) (1807–1823 by Friar Domingo de Petrés)
Basilica Cathedral of Arequipa (Peru) (1540–1844 by Lucas Poblete)
Palácio Imperial de Petrópolis (Brazil) (1845–1862 by Julius Friedrich Koeler)
Palacio del Congreso de Nación Argentina (1896–1906 by Vittorio Meano)
El Capitolio (Havana, Cuba) (1926–1929 by Eugenio Rayneri Piedra)
San Bartolome Church (Malabon)
Ayuntamiento de Manila
National Museum of Natural History (Manila)
El Hogar Building
Cebu Provincial Capitol
Taal Basilica
Villa Welgelegen, 1789 (Haarlem, The Netherlands)

A return to more classical architectural forms as a reaction to the Rococo style can be detected in some European architecture of the earlier 18th century, most vividly represented in the Palladian architecture of Georgian Britain and Ireland.

William Kent

William Kent (c.

Holkham Hall
Cascade in gardens of Chiswick House
Temple of Venus, Stowe
Temple of British Worthies, Stowe
The Temple of Ancient Virtue, Stowe
Holkham Hall, North Front
Holkham Hall, Marble Hall
Obelisk, Holkham Hall
Triumphal Arch, Holkham Hall
Badminton House
Worcester Lodge, Badminton House
Chiswick House, The Gallery
Dome of saloon, Chiswick House
Saloon, Chiswick House
Bedroom, Chiswick House
Chiswick House table
Chiswick House, ceiling of Blue Velvet Room
Chiswick House gardens
Chiswick House gardens
Chiswick House gardens
Rousham Cascade
Eyecatcher, Rousham
'Praeneste', Rousham
Houghton Hall stableyard
Temple, Shotover House
Temple, Euston Park
Devonshire House, London
Painted Ceiling Chiesa di San Giuliano dei Fiamminghi Rome, The Apotheosis of St Julian 1717
Royal Mews
Horse Guards
Horse Guards
Horse Guards
Plan, Horse Guards
Horse Guards Parade, Kent's Treasury is the stone building just beyond the Horse Guards building
Former Treasury Building, on left
Gateway (on right), Clock Court, Hampton Court Palace
Kensington Palace Cupola Room
Kensington Palace Cupola Room
painted ceiling, Presence Chamber, Kensington Palace
mural & ceiling, Great Staircase, Kensington Palace
Westminster Hall, with Kent's screen in place
Choir York Minster, showing Kent's black & white marble floor
Chapel, Blenheim Palace, Marlborough tomb on right
Sir Isaac Newton's memorial, Westminster Abbey
Poets' Corner, Westminster Abbey, with the Shakespeare memorial

Kent introduced the Palladian style of architecture into England with the villa at Chiswick House, and also originated the 'natural' style of gardening known as the English landscape garden at Chiswick, Stowe House in Buckinghamshire, and Rousham House in Oxfordshire.

Redwood Library and Athenaeum

Subscription library, museum, rare book repository and research center founded in 1747, and located at 50 Bellevue Avenue in Newport, Rhode Island.

The building's façade
Drawing of Redwood Library in 1768 by Pierre Eugene du Simitiere
Reference room, 1937
The building's interior in 2004
The side (main) entrance at 50 Bellevue Avenue (2021)

It was the first classical public building built in America, designed in the manner of Italian Renaissance Architect Andrea Palladio, in the Georgian-Palladian style.