Palmer Raids

frustrated by the Department of LaborPalmer Raidgovernment raidsAdditional raidsarresting radicalsJustice Departmentnationwide roundup of suspected communistsseries of raidswas later intensified
The Palmer Raids were a series of raids conducted in November 1919 and January 1920 during the First Red Scare by the United States Department of Justice under the administration of President Woodrow Wilson to capture and arrest suspected radical leftists, mostly Italian and Eastern European immigrants and especially anarchists and communists, and deport them from the United States.wikipedia
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A. Mitchell Palmer

Alexander Mitchell PalmerMitchell PalmerPalmer
The raids and arrests occurred under the leadership of Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer, with 3,000 arrested.
He is best known for overseeing the Palmer Raids during the Red Scare of 1919–20.

J. Edgar Hoover

HooverJ Edgar HooverJohn Edgar Hoover
On August 1, 1919, Palmer named 24-year-old J. Edgar Hoover to head a new division of the Justice Department's Bureau of Investigation, the General Intelligence Division (GID), with responsibility for investigating the programs of radical groups and identifying their members.
America's First Red Scare was beginning, and one of Hoover's first assignments was to carry out the Palmer Raids.

Communist Labor Party of America

Communist Labor PartyCommunist Labor
Less openly, Hoover decided to interpret Labor's agreement to act against the Communist Party to include a different organization, the Communist Labor Party.
Although a legal political party at the time of its formation, with a form of organization closely resembling that of the Socialist Party whence it sprung, the group was quickly forced underground by the Palmer Raids of January 1920 and thereafter conducted its activities in secret.

First Red Scare

Red ScareRed Scare of 1919–20Coal Strike of 1919
The Palmer Raids were a series of raids conducted in November 1919 and January 1920 during the First Red Scare by the United States Department of Justice under the administration of President Woodrow Wilson to capture and arrest suspected radical leftists, mostly Italian and Eastern European immigrants and especially anarchists and communists, and deport them from the United States.
The rift between the Attorney General and the Secretary of Labor was never healed, which had consequences the next year when Palmer's attempts to deport radicals were frustrated by the Department of Labor.

Woodrow Wilson

WilsonPresident WilsonPresident Woodrow Wilson
The Palmer Raids were a series of raids conducted in November 1919 and January 1920 during the First Red Scare by the United States Department of Justice under the administration of President Woodrow Wilson to capture and arrest suspected radical leftists, mostly Italian and Eastern European immigrants and especially anarchists and communists, and deport them from the United States.
Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer convinced Wilson to delay amnesty for those who had been convicted of war-time sedition, and he launched the Palmer Raids to suppress radical organizations.

Rockford, Illinois

RockfordRockford, ILCity of Rockford
States (cities where available): California (Los Angeles, San Francisco), Colorado (Denver), Connecticut (Ansonia, Bridgeport, Hartford, Meriden, New Haven, New London, South Manchester, Waterbury), Florida, Illinois (Chicago, Rockford, East St. Louis), Indiana, Iowa (Des Moines), Kansas (Kansas City), Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts (Boston, Chelsea, Brockton, Bridgewater, Norwood, Worcester, Springfield, Chicopee Falls, Holyoke, Gardner, Fitchburg, Lowell, Lawrence, Haverhill), Michigan (Detroit), Minnesota (St. Paul), Nebraska (Omaha), New Hampshire (Claremont, Derry, Lincoln, Manchester, Nashua, Portsmouth), New Jersey (Camden), New York (Buffalo and "nearby towns", New York City), Ohio (Cleveland, Toledo, Youngstown), Oregon (Portland), Pennsylvania (Chester, Pittsburgh), Washington (Spokane), Wisconsin (Milwaukee, Racine).
In 1920, the city was a target of the Palmer Raids.

1919 United States anarchist bombings

anarchist bombingsseries of bombings the previous year1919 anarchist bombings
There were strikes that garnered national attention, race riots in more than 30 cities, and two sets of bombings in April and June 1919, including one bomb mailed to Palmer's home. The fears of Wilson and other government officials were confirmed when Galleanists—Italian followers of the anarchist Luigi Galleani—carried out a series of bombings in April and June 1919.
Palmer, twice targeted by anarchist bombs, organized the nationwide series of police actions known as the Palmer raids in November 1919 and January 1920.

Luigi Galleani

Cronaca SovversivaGalleanistGalleanist anarchist
The fears of Wilson and other government officials were confirmed when Galleanists—Italian followers of the anarchist Luigi Galleani—carried out a series of bombings in April and June 1919.
With evidence in hand and after agreement with the Immigration Department, the Justice Department arrested thousands in a series of coordinated police actions known as the "Palmer Raids" and deported several hundred of them under the Anarchist Exclusion Act.

Louis F. Post

Louis Freeland PostLouis F PostLouis Post
In a few weeks, after changes in personnel at the Department of Labor, Palmer faced a new and very independent-minded Acting Secretary of Labor in Assistant Secretary of Labor Louis Freeland Post, who canceled more than 2,000 warrants as being illegal.
Louis Freeland Post (November 15, 1849 – January 11, 1928) was a prominent Georgist and the Assistant United States Secretary of Labor during the closing year of the Wilson administration, the period of the Palmer Raids and the Red Scare, where he had responsibility for the Bureau of Immigration.

Industrial Workers of the World

IWWWobbliesWobbly
Members of the IWW were prosecuted under various State and federal laws and the 1920 Palmer Raids singled out the foreign-born members of the organization.

Felix Frankfurter

FrankfurterJustice FrankfurterFrankfurter J
Such prominent lawyers and law professors as Felix Frankfurter, Roscoe Pound and Ernst Freund signed it.
Following the arrest of suspected communist radicals in 1919 and 1920 during the Palmer raids, Frankfurter, together with other prominent lawyers including Zechariah Chafee, signed an ACLU report which condemned the "utterly illegal acts committed by those charged with the highest duty of enforcing the laws" and noted they had committed entrapment, police brutality, prolonged incommunicado detention, and violations of due process in court.

George Weston Anderson

George Anderson
In June 1920, a decision by Massachusetts District Court Judge George Anderson ordered the discharge of 17 arrested aliens and denounced the Department of Justice's actions.
In June 1920, he effectively prevented any further resumption of the Palmer raids of November 1919 and January 1920 when his decision in the case of Colyer v. Skeffington ordered the discharge of 17 arrested radicals.

United States Department of Justice

Department of JusticeU.S. Department of JusticeJustice Department
The Palmer Raids were a series of raids conducted in November 1919 and January 1920 during the First Red Scare by the United States Department of Justice under the administration of President Woodrow Wilson to capture and arrest suspected radical leftists, mostly Italian and Eastern European immigrants and especially anarchists and communists, and deport them from the United States.

Left-wing politics

left-wingleftistleft
The Palmer Raids were a series of raids conducted in November 1919 and January 1920 during the First Red Scare by the United States Department of Justice under the administration of President Woodrow Wilson to capture and arrest suspected radical leftists, mostly Italian and Eastern European immigrants and especially anarchists and communists, and deport them from the United States.

Italians

ItalianItalian peopleItalian descent
The Palmer Raids were a series of raids conducted in November 1919 and January 1920 during the First Red Scare by the United States Department of Justice under the administration of President Woodrow Wilson to capture and arrest suspected radical leftists, mostly Italian and Eastern European immigrants and especially anarchists and communists, and deport them from the United States.

Eastern Europe

Eastern EuropeanEasternEast European
The Palmer Raids were a series of raids conducted in November 1919 and January 1920 during the First Red Scare by the United States Department of Justice under the administration of President Woodrow Wilson to capture and arrest suspected radical leftists, mostly Italian and Eastern European immigrants and especially anarchists and communists, and deport them from the United States.

Immigration

immigrantimmigrantsimmigrated
The Palmer Raids were a series of raids conducted in November 1919 and January 1920 during the First Red Scare by the United States Department of Justice under the administration of President Woodrow Wilson to capture and arrest suspected radical leftists, mostly Italian and Eastern European immigrants and especially anarchists and communists, and deport them from the United States.

Anarchism

anarchistanarchistsanarchistic
The Palmer Raids were a series of raids conducted in November 1919 and January 1920 during the First Red Scare by the United States Department of Justice under the administration of President Woodrow Wilson to capture and arrest suspected radical leftists, mostly Italian and Eastern European immigrants and especially anarchists and communists, and deport them from the United States.

Communism

communistcommunistscommunist ideology
The Palmer Raids were a series of raids conducted in November 1919 and January 1920 during the First Red Scare by the United States Department of Justice under the administration of President Woodrow Wilson to capture and arrest suspected radical leftists, mostly Italian and Eastern European immigrants and especially anarchists and communists, and deport them from the United States.

Deportation

deporteddeportexpulsion
The Palmer Raids were a series of raids conducted in November 1919 and January 1920 during the First Red Scare by the United States Department of Justice under the administration of President Woodrow Wilson to capture and arrest suspected radical leftists, mostly Italian and Eastern European immigrants and especially anarchists and communists, and deport them from the United States.

Italian diaspora

Italian immigrantsItalianItalian immigrant
The raids particularly targeted Italian immigrants and Eastern European Jewish immigrants with suspected radical leftist ties, with particular focus on Italian anarchists and immigrant leftist labor activists.

American Jews

JewishJewish AmericanJewish-American
The raids particularly targeted Italian immigrants and Eastern European Jewish immigrants with suspected radical leftist ties, with particular focus on Italian anarchists and immigrant leftist labor activists.

Anarchism in Italy

Italian anarchistItalian anarchistsItaly
The raids particularly targeted Italian immigrants and Eastern European Jewish immigrants with suspected radical leftist ties, with particular focus on Italian anarchists and immigrant leftist labor activists.

Union organizer

labor activistunion organiserlabor organizer
The raids particularly targeted Italian immigrants and Eastern European Jewish immigrants with suspected radical leftist ties, with particular focus on Italian anarchists and immigrant leftist labor activists.