Palpitations

palpitationheart palpitationsheart palpitationa feeling of the heart beating too fast, too hard, or skipping beatsa sensation of the heart beating too hard, fast, or irregularlyfast heart rateirregular heart ratepalpitantpalpitatedpalpitations of the heart
Palpitations are the perceived abnormality of the heartbeat characterized by awareness of cardiac muscle contractions in the chest, which is further characterized by the hard, fast and/or irregular beatings of the heart.wikipedia
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Hyperkalemia

high blood potassiumhyperkalaemiahigh blood potassium levels
Palpitation may be associated with coronary heart disease, hyperthyroidism, diseases affecting cardiac muscle such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, diseases causing low blood oxygen such as asthma and emphysema; previous chest surgery; kidney disease; blood loss and pain; drugs such as antidepressants, statins, alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, cocaine and amphetamines; electrolyte imbalances of magnesium, potassium and calcium; and deficiencies of nutrients such as taurine, arginine and iron. There are many metabolic conditions that can result in palpitations including, hyperthyroidism, hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, hyperkalemia, hypokalemia, hypermagnesemia, hypomagnesemia, and pheochromocytoma.
Occasionally when severe it results in palpitations, muscle pain, muscle weakness, or numbness.

Atrial fibrillation

atrial fibrilationparoxysmal atrial fibrillationAtrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response
Three common descriptions of palpitation are "flip-flopping" (or "stop and start"), often caused by premature contraction of the atrium or ventricle, with the perceived "stop" from the pause following the contraction, and the "start" from the subsequent forceful contraction; rapid "fluttering in the chest", with regular "fluttering" suggesting supraventricular or ventricular arrhythmias (including sinus tachycardia) and irregular "fluttering" suggesting atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, or tachycardia with variable block; and "pounding in the neck" or neck pulsations, often due to cannon A waves in the jugular venous, pulsations that occur when the right atrium contracts against a closed tricuspid valve. The cardiac etiologies of palpitations are the most life-threatening and include ventricular sources (premature ventricular contractions, ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation), atrial sources (atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter) high output states (anemia, AV fistula, Paget's disease of bone or pregnancy), structural abnormalities (congenital heart disease, cardiomegaly, aortic aneurysm, or acute left ventricular failure), and miscellaneous sources (postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome abbreivated as POTS, Brugada syndrome, and sinus tachycardia).
Occasionally there may be heart palpitations, fainting, lightheadedness, shortness of breath, or chest pain.

Anxiety

anxiousnervousnessanxieties
Palpitation can be associated with anxiety and does not necessarily indicate a structural or functional abnormality of the heart, but it can be a symptom arising from an objectively rapid or irregular heartbeat.

Magnesium deficiency

hypomagnesemiamagnesiumlow blood magnesium
Palpitation may be associated with coronary heart disease, hyperthyroidism, diseases affecting cardiac muscle such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, diseases causing low blood oxygen such as asthma and emphysema; previous chest surgery; kidney disease; blood loss and pain; drugs such as antidepressants, statins, alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, cocaine and amphetamines; electrolyte imbalances of magnesium, potassium and calcium; and deficiencies of nutrients such as taurine, arginine and iron. There are many metabolic conditions that can result in palpitations including, hyperthyroidism, hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, hyperkalemia, hypokalemia, hypermagnesemia, hypomagnesemia, and pheochromocytoma.
Deficiency of magnesium can cause tiredness, generalized weakness, muscle cramps, abnormal heart rhythms, increased irritability of the nervous system with tremors, paresthesias, palpitations, low potassium levels in the blood, hypoparathyroidism which might result in low calcium levels in the blood, chondrocalcinosis, spasticity and tetany, migraines, epileptic seizures, basal ganglia calcifications and in extreme and prolonged cases coma, intellectual disability or death.

Panic disorder

panicpanic disorderspanic disorde
Hyperventilation, hand tingling, and nervousness are common when anxiety or panic disorder is the cause of the palpitations.
Panic attacks are sudden periods of intense fear that may include palpitations, sweating, shaking, shortness of breath, numbness, or a feeling that something terrible is going to happen.

Perspiration

sweatingsweatdiaphoresis
Associated symptoms include dizziness, shortness of breath, sweating, headaches and chest pain.
If it is accompanied by unexplained weight loss or fever or by palpitations, shortness of breath, or chest discomfort, it suggests serious illness.

Nicotine

nicotine addictionnicotine sulfateaddicted to nicotine
Palpitation may be associated with coronary heart disease, hyperthyroidism, diseases affecting cardiac muscle such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, diseases causing low blood oxygen such as asthma and emphysema; previous chest surgery; kidney disease; blood loss and pain; drugs such as antidepressants, statins, alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, cocaine and amphetamines; electrolyte imbalances of magnesium, potassium and calcium; and deficiencies of nutrients such as taurine, arginine and iron.
A 2018 Cochrane review found that, in rare cases, nicotine replacement therapy can cause non-ischemic chest pain (i.e., chest pain that is unrelated to a myocardial infarction) and heart palpitations.

Ventricular tachycardia

polymorphic ventricular tachycardiapulseless ventricular tachycardiamonomorphic ventricular tachycardia
The cardiac etiologies of palpitations are the most life-threatening and include ventricular sources (premature ventricular contractions, ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation), atrial sources (atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter) high output states (anemia, AV fistula, Paget's disease of bone or pregnancy), structural abnormalities (congenital heart disease, cardiomegaly, aortic aneurysm, or acute left ventricular failure), and miscellaneous sources (postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome abbreivated as POTS, Brugada syndrome, and sinus tachycardia).
Short periods may occur without symptoms, or present with lightheadedness, palpitations, or chest pain.

Caffeine

caffeinatedHealth effects of caffeineNo-Doz
Palpitation may be associated with coronary heart disease, hyperthyroidism, diseases affecting cardiac muscle such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, diseases causing low blood oxygen such as asthma and emphysema; previous chest surgery; kidney disease; blood loss and pain; drugs such as antidepressants, statins, alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, cocaine and amphetamines; electrolyte imbalances of magnesium, potassium and calcium; and deficiencies of nutrients such as taurine, arginine and iron.
Heart palpitations are caused by blockade of the A 1 receptor.

Anemia

anaemiaanemicanaemic
The cardiac etiologies of palpitations are the most life-threatening and include ventricular sources (premature ventricular contractions, ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation), atrial sources (atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter) high output states (anemia, AV fistula, Paget's disease of bone or pregnancy), structural abnormalities (congenital heart disease, cardiomegaly, aortic aneurysm, or acute left ventricular failure), and miscellaneous sources (postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome abbreivated as POTS, Brugada syndrome, and sinus tachycardia). In one study reporting the etiology of palpitations, 43% were found to be of cardiac etiology, 31% of psychiatric etiology and approximately 10% were classified as miscellaneous (medication induced, thyrotoxicosis, caffeine, cocaine, anemia, amphetamine, mastocytosis).
The patient may have symptoms related to this, such as palpitations, angina (if pre-existing heart disease is present), intermittent claudication of the legs, and symptoms of heart failure.

Atrial flutter

flutteratrial flutter (AFl)
The cardiac etiologies of palpitations are the most life-threatening and include ventricular sources (premature ventricular contractions, ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation), atrial sources (atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter) high output states (anemia, AV fistula, Paget's disease of bone or pregnancy), structural abnormalities (congenital heart disease, cardiomegaly, aortic aneurysm, or acute left ventricular failure), and miscellaneous sources (postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome abbreivated as POTS, Brugada syndrome, and sinus tachycardia).
Symptoms may include a feeling of the heart beating too fast, too hard, or skipping beats, chest discomfort, difficulty breathing, a feeling as if one's stomach has dropped, a feeling of being light-headed, or loss of consciousness.

Hyperthyroidism

thyrotoxicosishyperthyroidoveractive thyroid
Palpitation may be associated with coronary heart disease, hyperthyroidism, diseases affecting cardiac muscle such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, diseases causing low blood oxygen such as asthma and emphysema; previous chest surgery; kidney disease; blood loss and pain; drugs such as antidepressants, statins, alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, cocaine and amphetamines; electrolyte imbalances of magnesium, potassium and calcium; and deficiencies of nutrients such as taurine, arginine and iron. In one study reporting the etiology of palpitations, 43% were found to be of cardiac etiology, 31% of psychiatric etiology and approximately 10% were classified as miscellaneous (medication induced, thyrotoxicosis, caffeine, cocaine, anemia, amphetamine, mastocytosis). There are many metabolic conditions that can result in palpitations including, hyperthyroidism, hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, hyperkalemia, hypokalemia, hypermagnesemia, hypomagnesemia, and pheochromocytoma.
These include fast heart beat and symptoms of palpitations, nervous system tremor such as of the hands and anxiety symptoms, digestive system hypermotility, unintended weight loss, and (in "lipid panel" blood tests) a lower and sometimes unusually low serum cholesterol.

Cardiomegaly

enlarged heartcardiothoracic ratioventricular dilation
The cardiac etiologies of palpitations are the most life-threatening and include ventricular sources (premature ventricular contractions, ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation), atrial sources (atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter) high output states (anemia, AV fistula, Paget's disease of bone or pregnancy), structural abnormalities (congenital heart disease, cardiomegaly, aortic aneurysm, or acute left ventricular failure), and miscellaneous sources (postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome abbreivated as POTS, Brugada syndrome, and sinus tachycardia).

Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome

Postural Tachycardia Syndromepostural tachycardia
The cardiac etiologies of palpitations are the most life-threatening and include ventricular sources (premature ventricular contractions, ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation), atrial sources (atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter) high output states (anemia, AV fistula, Paget's disease of bone or pregnancy), structural abnormalities (congenital heart disease, cardiomegaly, aortic aneurysm, or acute left ventricular failure), and miscellaneous sources (postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome abbreivated as POTS, Brugada syndrome, and sinus tachycardia).
These orthostatic symptoms include palpitations, light-headedness, chest discomfort, shortness of breath, nausea, weakness or "heaviness" in the lower legs, blurred vision and cognitive difficulties.

Premature ventricular contraction

premature ventricular contractionsextrasystolespremature ventricular beats
The cardiac etiologies of palpitations are the most life-threatening and include ventricular sources (premature ventricular contractions, ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation), atrial sources (atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter) high output states (anemia, AV fistula, Paget's disease of bone or pregnancy), structural abnormalities (congenital heart disease, cardiomegaly, aortic aneurysm, or acute left ventricular failure), and miscellaneous sources (postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome abbreivated as POTS, Brugada syndrome, and sinus tachycardia).
PVCs may cause no symptoms or may be perceived as a "skipped beat" or felt as palpitations in the chest.

Panic attack

panic attacksanxiety attackanxiety attacks
Many psychiatric conditions can result in palpitations including depression, generalized anxiety disorder, panic attacks, and somatization.
Panic attacks are sudden periods of intense fear that may include palpitations, sweating, shaking, shortness of breath, numbness, or a feeling that something bad is going to happen.

Hypoglycemia

low blood sugarhypoglycaemiahypoglycemic
There are many metabolic conditions that can result in palpitations including, hyperthyroidism, hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, hyperkalemia, hypokalemia, hypermagnesemia, hypomagnesemia, and pheochromocytoma.

Asthma

asthma attackbronchial asthmaasthmatic
Palpitation may be associated with coronary heart disease, hyperthyroidism, diseases affecting cardiac muscle such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, diseases causing low blood oxygen such as asthma and emphysema; previous chest surgery; kidney disease; blood loss and pain; drugs such as antidepressants, statins, alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, cocaine and amphetamines; electrolyte imbalances of magnesium, potassium and calcium; and deficiencies of nutrients such as taurine, arginine and iron.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

emphysemaCOPDpulmonary emphysema
Palpitation may be associated with coronary heart disease, hyperthyroidism, diseases affecting cardiac muscle such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, diseases causing low blood oxygen such as asthma and emphysema; previous chest surgery; kidney disease; blood loss and pain; drugs such as antidepressants, statins, alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, cocaine and amphetamines; electrolyte imbalances of magnesium, potassium and calcium; and deficiencies of nutrients such as taurine, arginine and iron.
Long-term use appears safe in COPD with adverse effects include shakiness and heart palpitations.

Anxiety disorder

anxiety disordersanxietynervous disorder
Hyperventilation, hand tingling, and nervousness are common when anxiety or panic disorder is the cause of the palpitations.
They are prone to flare up at times of high stress and are frequently accompanied by physiological symptoms such as headache, sweating, muscle spasms, tachycardia, palpitations, and hypertension, which in some cases lead to fatigue.

Heart block

blockheart-blockSinoatrial heart block
Despite the severe-sounding name, heart block may cause no symptoms at all in some cases, or occasional missed heartbeats in other cases (which can cause light-headedness, syncope (fainting), and palpitations), or may require the implantation of an artificial pacemaker, depending upon exactly where in the heart conduction is being impaired and how significantly it is affected.

Heart arrhythmia

cardiac arrhythmiaarrhythmiaarrhythmias
Three common descriptions of palpitation are "flip-flopping" (or "stop and start"), often caused by premature contraction of the atrium or ventricle, with the perceived "stop" from the pause following the contraction, and the "start" from the subsequent forceful contraction; rapid "fluttering in the chest", with regular "fluttering" suggesting supraventricular or ventricular arrhythmias (including sinus tachycardia) and irregular "fluttering" suggesting atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, or tachycardia with variable block; and "pounding in the neck" or neck pulsations, often due to cannon A waves in the jugular venous, pulsations that occur when the right atrium contracts against a closed tricuspid valve.
When symptoms are present, these may include palpitations or feeling a pause between heartbeats.

Mitral valve prolapse

Barlow's syndromemitral valve prolapse syndromeprolapse
A mid-systolic click and heart murmur may indicate mitral valve prolapse.
Historically, the term mitral valve prolapse syndrome has been applied to MVP associated with palpitations, atypical precordial pain, dyspnea on exertion, low body mass index, and electrocardiogram abnormalities (ventricular tachycardia), syncope, low blood pressure, headaches, lightheadedness, and other signs suggestive of autonomic nervous system dysfunction (dysautonomia).

Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia

PSVTparoxysmal supraventricular
Furthermore, the sudden cessation of this arrythmia can suggest paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia.
Otherwise symptoms may include palpitations, feeling lightheaded, sweating, shortness of breath, and chest pain.

Pheochromocytoma

phaeochromocytomapheochromocytomasadrenal cancers
There are many metabolic conditions that can result in palpitations including, hyperthyroidism, hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, hyperkalemia, hypokalemia, hypermagnesemia, hypomagnesemia, and pheochromocytoma.