Pan-Africanism

Pan-AfricanPan-AfricanistPan AfricanPan AfricanistPan AfricanismPan-AfricanistsPan-African movementPan-African StudiesAfricanAfrican internationalism
Pan-Africanism is a worldwide movement that aims to encourage and strengthen bonds of solidarity between all indigenous and diasporan ethnic groups of African descent.wikipedia
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Kwame Nkrumah

NkrumahDr. Kwame NkrumahDr Kwame Nkrumah
Pan-African advocates include leaders such as Haile Selassie, Julius Nyerere, Ahmed Sékou Touré, Kwame Nkrumah, King Sobhuza II, Thomas Sankara and Muammar Gaddafi, grassroots organizers such as Marcus Garvey and Malcolm X, academics such as W. E. B. Du Bois, and others in the diaspora.
An influential advocate of pan-Africanism, Nkrumah was a founding member of the Organisation of African Unity and winner of the Lenin Peace Prize in 1962.

Julius Nyerere

NyerereJulius Kambarage NyererePresident Nyerere
Pan-African advocates include leaders such as Haile Selassie, Julius Nyerere, Ahmed Sékou Touré, Kwame Nkrumah, King Sobhuza II, Thomas Sankara and Muammar Gaddafi, grassroots organizers such as Marcus Garvey and Malcolm X, academics such as W. E. B. Du Bois, and others in the diaspora.
He encouraged the formation of a one-party state and unsuccessfully pursued the Pan-Africanist formation of an East African Federation with Uganda and Kenya.

Marcus Garvey

Marcus Mosiah GarveyGarveyMarcus
Pan-African advocates include leaders such as Haile Selassie, Julius Nyerere, Ahmed Sékou Touré, Kwame Nkrumah, King Sobhuza II, Thomas Sankara and Muammar Gaddafi, grassroots organizers such as Marcus Garvey and Malcolm X, academics such as W. E. B. Du Bois, and others in the diaspora. Other pan-Africanist organisations include: Garvey's Universal Negro Improvement Association-African Communities League, TransAfrica and the International People's Democratic Uhuru Movement.
Ideologically a black nationalist and Pan-Africanist, his ideas came to be known as Garveyism.

Thomas Sankara

Sankara1983-1987Captain Thomas Sankara
Pan-African advocates include leaders such as Haile Selassie, Julius Nyerere, Ahmed Sékou Touré, Kwame Nkrumah, King Sobhuza II, Thomas Sankara and Muammar Gaddafi, grassroots organizers such as Marcus Garvey and Malcolm X, academics such as W. E. B. Du Bois, and others in the diaspora.
A Marxist and pan-Africanist, he was viewed by supporters as a charismatic and iconic figure of revolution, and is sometimes referred to as "Africa's Che Guevara".

W. E. B. Du Bois

W.E.B. Du BoisW.E.B. DuBoisW. E. B. DuBois
Pan-African advocates include leaders such as Haile Selassie, Julius Nyerere, Ahmed Sékou Touré, Kwame Nkrumah, King Sobhuza II, Thomas Sankara and Muammar Gaddafi, grassroots organizers such as Marcus Garvey and Malcolm X, academics such as W. E. B. Du Bois, and others in the diaspora.
William Edward Burghardt Du Bois ( February 23, 1868 – August 27, 1963) was an American sociologist, historian, civil rights activist, Pan-Africanist, author, writer and editor.

Muammar Gaddafi

Muammar al-GaddafiGaddafiColonel Gaddafi
Pan-African advocates include leaders such as Haile Selassie, Julius Nyerere, Ahmed Sékou Touré, Kwame Nkrumah, King Sobhuza II, Thomas Sankara and Muammar Gaddafi, grassroots organizers such as Marcus Garvey and Malcolm X, academics such as W. E. B. Du Bois, and others in the diaspora.
From 1999, Gaddafi shunned Arab socialism and encouraged economic privatization, rapprochement with Western nations, and Pan-Africanism; he was Chairperson of the African Union from 2009 to 2010.

Malcolm X

assassination of Malcolm XEl-Hajj Malik El-ShabazzMalcolm Little
Pan-African advocates include leaders such as Haile Selassie, Julius Nyerere, Ahmed Sékou Touré, Kwame Nkrumah, King Sobhuza II, Thomas Sankara and Muammar Gaddafi, grassroots organizers such as Marcus Garvey and Malcolm X, academics such as W. E. B. Du Bois, and others in the diaspora.
After a brief period of travel across Africa, he notably repudiated the NOI, and founded Muslim Mosque, Inc. (MMI) and the Organization of Afro-American Unity (OAAU) to emphasize Pan-Africanism.

Neocolonialism

neo-colonialismneocolonialneo-colonial
Pan-Africanism as an ethical system traces its origins from ancient times, and promotes values that are the product of the African civilisations and the struggles against slavery, racism, colonialism, and neo-colonialism.
Neocolonialism was used to describe a type of foreign intervention in countries belonging to the Pan-Africanist movement, as well as the Bandung Conference (Asian–African Conference, 1955), which led to the Non-Aligned Movement (1961).

Henry Sylvester-Williams

Henry Sylvester Williams
The African Association, later renamed the Pan-African Association, was established around 1897 by Henry Sylvester-Williams, who organized the First Pan-African Conference in London in 1900. As originally conceived by Henry Sylvester-Williams (although some historians credit the idea to Edward Wilmot Blyden), Pan-Africanism referred to the unity of all continental Africa.
Henry Sylvester Williams (24 March 1867 or 15 February 1869 – 26 March 1911) was a Trinidadian lawyer, councillor and writer, most noted for his involvement in the Pan-African Movement.

Frantz Fanon

FanonFranz FanonFanon, Frantz
Frantz Fanon, journalist, freedom fighter and a member of the Algerian FLN party attended the conference as a delegate for Algeria.
As well as being an intellectual, Fanon was a political radical, Pan-Africanist, and Marxist humanist concerned with the psychopathology of colonization and the human, social, and cultural consequences of decolonization.

Ahmed Sékou Touré

Sékou TouréSekou ToureAhmed Sekou Touré
Pan-African advocates include leaders such as Haile Selassie, Julius Nyerere, Ahmed Sékou Touré, Kwame Nkrumah, King Sobhuza II, Thomas Sankara and Muammar Gaddafi, grassroots organizers such as Marcus Garvey and Malcolm X, academics such as W. E. B. Du Bois, and others in the diaspora.
Despite this, Touré's position won the support of many anti-colonialist and Pan-African groups and leaders.

Ghana

GhanaianRepublic of GhanaGHA
With the independence of Ghana in March 1957, Kwame Nkrumah was elected as the first Prime Minister and President of the State.
Nkrumah was the first African head of state to promote the concept of Pan-Africanism, which he had been introduced to during his studies at Lincoln University, Pennsylvania in the United States, at the time when Marcus Garvey was becoming famous for his "Back to Africa Movement".

Edward Wilmot Blyden

Edward BlydenBlyden SocietyBlyden, Edward Wilmot
As originally conceived by Henry Sylvester-Williams (although some historians credit the idea to Edward Wilmot Blyden), Pan-Africanism referred to the unity of all continental Africa.
His writings on pan-Africanism were influential in both colonies.

Négritude

NegritudeBlacknessnegritud
Examples of this include Léopold Sédar Senghor's Négritude movement, and Mobutu Sese Seko's view of Authenticité.
Négritude intellectuals disavowed colonialism, and argued for the importance of a Pan-African sense of being among people of African descent worldwide.

Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League

Universal Negro Improvement AssociationUNIAUNIA-ACL
Other pan-Africanist organisations include: Garvey's Universal Negro Improvement Association-African Communities League, TransAfrica and the International People's Democratic Uhuru Movement.
The Pan-African organization enjoyed its greatest strength in the 1920s, and was influential prior to Garvey's deportation to Jamaica in 1927.

African diaspora

Africandiasporablack diaspora
Pan-African advocates include leaders such as Haile Selassie, Julius Nyerere, Ahmed Sékou Touré, Kwame Nkrumah, King Sobhuza II, Thomas Sankara and Muammar Gaddafi, grassroots organizers such as Marcus Garvey and Malcolm X, academics such as W. E. B. Du Bois, and others in the diaspora. At its core Pan-Africanism is a belief that “African people, both on the continent and in the diaspora, share not merely a common history, but a common destiny". Pan-Africanist intellectual, cultural, and political movements tend to view all Africans and descendants of Africans as belonging to a single "race" and sharing cultural unity. Pan-Africanism posits a sense of a shared historical fate for Africans in the Americas, West Indies, and, on the continent itself, has centered on the Atlantic trade in slaves, African slavery, and European imperialism.
Some Pan-Africanists also consider other peoples as diasporic African peoples.

Rassemblement Démocratique Africain

African Democratic RallyRDARassemblement Democratique Africain
The political ideology of the party did not endorse outright secession of colonies from France, but it was anti-colonial and pan-Africanist in its political stances.

Economic Freedom Fighters

EFFEconomic Freedom FighterEconomic Freedom Fighters (EFF)
The Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF) is a South African far-left Pan-Africanist political party.

Pan Africanist Congress of Azania

Pan Africanist CongressPan African CongressPan-Africanist Congress
During apartheid South Africa there was a Pan Africanist Congress that dealt with the oppression of Africans in South Africa under Apartheid rule.
The Pan Africanist Congress of Azania (formerly known as the Pan Africanist Congress, abbreviated as the PAC) is a South African Pan-Africanist movement that is now a political party.

Organisation of African Unity

OAUOrganization for African UnityOrganisation for African Unity
At that conference, the late Gambian historian—and one of the leading Gambian nationalists and Pan-Africanists at the time—Alieu Ebrima Cham Joof delivered a speech in front of the member states, in which he said:

William Tubman

William V. S. TubmanPresident TubmanWilliam V.S. Tubman
In 1959, Nkrumah, President Sékou Touré of Guinea and President William Tubman of Liberia met at Sanniquellie and signed the Sanniquellie Declaration outlining the principles for the achievement of the unity of Independent African States whilst maintaining a national identity and autonomous constitutional structure.
In 1961, following a Pan-African conference held in Monrovia, Tubman helped to found the African Union.

South Africa

South AfricanRepublic of South AfricaRSA
Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa, while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".

Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement

Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement, a radical socialist and Pan-African political party in Antigua and Barbuda.

Pan-African Federation

*Pan-African Federation
The Pan-African Federation was a multinational Pan-African organization founded in Manchester, United Kingdom, in 1944.

Council on African Affairs

It emerged as the leading voice of anti-colonialism and Pan-Africanism in the United States and internationally before Cold War anti-communism and liberalism created too much strife among members; the organization split in 1955.