Panama

Embera girl dressed for a dance
Vasco Núñez de Balboa, a recognized and popular figure of Panamanian history
"New Caledonia", the ill-fated Scottish Darien scheme colony in the Bay of Caledonia, west of the Gulf of Darien
Santo Domingo Church
1903 political cartoon. The US government, working with separatists in Panama, engineered a Panamanian declaration of independence from Colombia, then sent US warships and marines to Panama.
US President Theodore Roosevelt sitting on a steam shovel at the Panama Canal, 1906
Construction work on the Gaillard Cut of the Panama Canal, 1907
Omar Torrijos (right) with farmers in the Panamanian countryside. The Torrijos government was well known for its policies of land redistribution.
US President Jimmy Carter shakes hands with General Omar Torrijos after signing the Panama Canal Treaties (September 7, 1977).
The aftermath of urban warfare during the US invasion of Panama, 1989
British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson swapped football shirts with the President of Panama, Juan Carlos Varela in London, May 14, 2018.
A map of Panama
La Palma, Darién
The Chagres River
Colón Harbor, 2000
Panama map of Köppen climate classification
A cooler climate is common in the Panamanian highlands.
The National Assembly of Panama
Panama's President-elect Juan Carlos Varela and Vice President Isabel Saint Malo with US Secretary of State John Kerry just before Varela's inauguration in 2014
GDP per capita development Panama since 1950
A proportional representation of Panama exports, 2019
A Panamax ship in transit through the Miraflores locks, Panama Canal
Countries with politicians, public officials or close associates implicated in the Panama Papers leak on April 15, 2016
Tocumen International Airport, Central America's largest airport
Zapatilla Island, Panama
Fortifications on the Caribbean Side of Panama: Portobelo-San Lorenzo were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1980.
Population pyramid, 2016
Panama's population, 1961–2003
Panama City, Panama's capital
Plaza de la independencia, Panama City
Erika Ender
A couple dancing Panamanian Cumbia
Panamanian baseball catcher Carlos Ruiz during 2007 Spring Training

Transcontinental country in Central America and South America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north, and the Pacific Ocean to the south.

- Panama

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Panama Canal Zone

Unincorporated territory of the United States, located in Isthmus of Panama in Central America, that existed from 1903 to 1979.

Unincorporated territory of the United States, located in Isthmus of Panama in Central America, that existed from 1903 to 1979.

Map of the area before canal construction
Charts of excavation progress and contribution to the canal excavation
Map of the Panama Canal Zone
Canal Zone Courthouse, site of the Canal Zone District Court which existed from 1914 until 1982.
Gorgas Hospital was built by the French as L'Hospital Notre Dame de Canal in 1882, renamed Ancon Hospital when the U.S. assumed control in 1904, rebuilt in 1915 and finally renamed in honor of William C. Gorgas in 1928. It is now home to Panama's Ministry of Health and the Instituto Oncologico Nacional.
Howard Air Force Base in 1970
Abandoned theatre in Fort Davis (2011)
Two Canal Zone stamps showing precancels.

It was located within the territory of Panama, consisting of the Panama Canal and an area generally extending 5 mi on each side of the centerline, but excluding Panama City and Colón.

Jimmy Carter and Omar Torrijos shake hands moments after the signing of the Torrijos–Carter Treaties.

Torrijos–Carter Treaties

Jimmy Carter and Omar Torrijos shake hands moments after the signing of the Torrijos–Carter Treaties.
Ceremonial Transfer of Canal Zone at Miraflores Locks

The Torrijos–Carter Treaties (Tratados Torrijos-Carter) are two treaties signed by the United States and Panama in Washington, D.C. on September 7, 1977, which superseded the Hay–Bunau-Varilla Treaty of 1903.

South America

Continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.

Continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.

Map of South America showing physical, political, and population characteristics, as per 2018
A composite relief image of South America
Modern political map of South America
Los Roques Archipelago, Venezuela
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for South America
Map of all tropical cyclone tracks from 1945 to 2006
The prehistoric Cueva de las Manos, or "Cave of the Hands", in Argentina
The Inca estate of Machu Picchu, Peru is one of the New Seven Wonders of the World.
Woodcut depicting Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci's first voyage (1497-98) to the New World, from the first known published edition of Vespucci's 1504 letter to Piero Soderini.
The Inca–Spanish confrontation in the Battle of Cajamarca left thousands of natives dead.
The Portuguese explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral landing in Brazil in 1500
Dutch colonial houses in Paramaribo, Suriname
A painting of the settlement of Pernambuco in colonial Brazil by Frans Post
A map of the Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the Americas in 1790
Public flogging of a slave in 19th-century Brazil.
The proclamation of the Independence of Brazil by Prince Pedro on 7 September 1822
The Guayaquil conference between José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar
Coronation of Pedro I as 1st Emperor of Brazil
Bernardo O'Higgins swears officially the independence of Chile.
The Thirty-Three Orientals proclaimed the independence of Cisplatine Province.
Battle of Fanfa, battle scene in Southern Brazil during the Ragamuffin War
Imperial Brazilian Navy and army troops during the Siege of Paysandú, 1865
The Uruguayan Army at the Battle of Sauce, 1866
The Imperial Brazilian Army during a procession in Paraguay, 1868
The Chilean Army in the battlefield of the Battle of Chorrillos, 1883
A German submarine under attack by Brazilian Air Force PBY Catalina, 31 July 1943
Argentine soldiers during the Falklands War
The Brazilian Minas Geraes class kindled an Argentine–Brazilian–Chilean naval arms race.
Presidents of UNASUR member states at the Second Brasília Summit on 23 May 2008.
Headquarters of the UNASUR in Quito, Ecuador
Scheme for geographic regions and subregions used by the United Nations Statistics Division.
South American flags
Satellite view of South America at night from NASA.
Official languages in South America
Las Lajas Sanctuary, Ipiales, Colombia.
Spanish-Venezuelan protesters in Madrid.
A Japanese-Brazilian Miko during a festival in Curitiba
Former president of Brazil Lula and members of the Italian Brazilian community during the Grape Festival at Caxias do Sul
Peruvian woman and her son
Launch at the Kourou Space Centre in French Guiana
Refinery of Brazilian state-owned Petrobras in Cochabamba, Bolivia
Chuquicamata is the largest open pit mine in the world, near the city of Calama in Chile.
KC-390 is the largest military transport aircraft produced in South America by the Brazilian company Embraer.
Vineyard in Luján de Cuyo, province of Mendoza, Argentina
Sugarcane plantation in São Paulo. In 2018, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 746 million tonnes. South America produces half of the world's sugarcane.
Soy plantation in Mato Grosso. In 2020, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 130 million tonnes. South America produces half of the world's soybeans.
Coffee in Minas Gerais. In 2018, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 3.5 million tonnes. South America produces half of the world's coffee.
Orange in São Paulo. In 2018, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 17 million tonnes. South America produces 25% of the world's orange.
Truck of a meat company in Brazil. South America produces 20% of the world's beef and chicken meat.
EMS, the largest Brazilian pharmaceutical industry
Braskem, the largest Brazilian chemical industry
Cerro Rico, Potosi, Bolivia, still a major silver mine
Amethyst mine in Ametista do Sul. South America is a major producer of gems such as amethyst, topaz, emerald, aquamarine and tourmaline
Iron mine in Minas Gerais. Brazil is the world's second largest iron ore exporter.
Bird (UOB Plaza, Singapore), sculpture of Colombian artist Fernando Botero
“Chromovegetal Maze” by Carlos Cruz Diez, in Caracas.
Maracanã Stadium in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Panorama of the interior of the Maracanã stadium during the closing ceremony of the 2014 FIFA World Cup
Wind farm in the Paraguaná Peninsula, Venezuela
Wind power in Parnaíba.
Angra Nuclear Power Plant in Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro
Pirapora Solar Complex, the largest in Brazil and Latin America with a capacity of 321 MW.
Rodovia dos Bandeirantes, Brazil
Ruta 9 / 14, in Zarate, Argentina
Rio–Niterói Bridge
Rio de Janeiro International Airport
Port of Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brazil
Stretch of the Pan-American Highway in Argentina
General Rafael Urdaneta Bridge in Venezuela
The Port of Callao in Lima
The La Paz cable car system in Bolivia is home to both the longest and highest urban cable car network in the world
Grape plantation in Argentina. Argentina and Chile are among the 10 largest grape and wine producers in the world and Brazil among the 20 largest.
Maize in Dourados. Brazil and Argentina are among the 5 largest world producers
Salmon farming in Chile. One third of all salmon sold in the world comes from the country.
Neugebauer Chocolate Factory in Arroio do Meio. South America specializes in food processing
Steel-maker CSN, in Volta Redonda. Brazil is one of the 10 largest steel producers in the world, and Argentina is one of the 30 largest
Klabin industrial complex, in Ortigueira. Brazil is the second largest pulp producer and the eighth largest paper producer in the world
Portico of the Democrata men's shoe factory, in Franca. Brazil is the fourth largest shoe manufacturer in the world.
Hering, in Santa Catarina, Brazil. The country has one of the 5 largest textile industries in the world
Mercedes-Benz plant in São Paulo. Brazil is among the 10 largest vehicle manufacturers in the world and Argentina among the 30 largest.
Copper mine in Chile. Latin America produces more than half of the world's copper
Colombian emerald. The country is the largest producer of emeralds in the world, and Brazil is one of the largest producers
Copacabana Palace, the best hotel in South America, in Rio de Janeiro. Tourism brings important currencies to the continent.
Honey production in Argentina. The country is the third largest producer of honey in the world.
Sunflower plantation in Argentina. The country is the world's third largest producer of sunflower seed.
Chilean cherries. Chile is one of the top 5 producers of sweet cherries in the world.
Chilean kiwi. The country is one of the 10 largest kiwi producers in the world.
Palm plantation in Magdalena. Colombia is one of the top 5 palm oil producers in the world.
Pineapple in Brazil. The country is the 3rd largest producer in the world. South America produces close to 20% of the world's pineapple.
Oil refinery in Amuay. Venezuela is one of the largest oil producers in the world.

In addition, the ABC islands of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Ascension Island (dependency of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, a British Overseas Territory), Bouvet Island (dependency of Norway), Panama, and Trinidad and Tobago may also be considered parts of South America.

Organization of American States

International organization that was founded on 30 April 1948 for the purposes of solidarity and co-operation among its member states within the Americas.

International organization that was founded on 30 April 1948 for the purposes of solidarity and co-operation among its member states within the Americas.

The Pan American Union Building shortly after its construction in Washington, D. C., 1910
Logo in 1909 publication
Pan American Union headquarters building in Washington, D.C., 1943.
Seal with the official name in English.
US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo speaks at the OAS Permanent Council in January 2019.
A session of the OAS's thirty-fifth General Assembly in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, United States, June 2005
Those attending the Extraordinary Assembly of the OAS voted to suspend Honduras.
Statue of Isabella I the Catholic Queen in front of the seat of the Organization of American States in Washington, D.C.

This meeting was attended by representatives of Gran Colombia (comprising the modern-day countries of Colombia, Ecuador, Panama and Venezuela), Argentina, Peru, Bolivia, The United Provinces of Central America, and Mexico but the grandly titled "Treaty of Union, League, and Perpetual Confederation" was ultimately ratified only by Gran Colombia.

The Isthmus of Panama

Isthmus of Panama

Narrow strip of land that lies between the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean, linking North and South America.

Narrow strip of land that lies between the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean, linking North and South America.

The Isthmus of Panama
Núñez de Balboa's travel route to the South Sea, 1513
An 1850 oil painting by Charles Christian Nahl: The Isthmus of Panama on the Height of the Chagres River
The closure of the Isthmus led to allopatric speciation events of marine organisms isolated on each side (blue and green). Terrestrial species also migrated between the two continents (the Great American Biotic Interchange) upon the formation of a passable land bridge.

It contains the country of Panama and the Panama Canal.

Costa Rica

A stone sphere created by the Diquis culture at the National Museum of Costa Rica. The sphere is the icon of the country's cultural identity.
The Ujarrás historical site in the Orosí Valley, Cartago province. The church was built between 1686 and 1693.
The 1849 national coat of arms was featured in the first postal stamp issued in 1862.
Costa Rica map of Köppen climate classification
Red-eyed tree frog (Agalychnis callidryas)
Real GPD per capita development in Costa Rica
An Intel microprocessor facility in Costa Rica that was, at one time, responsible for 20% of Costa Rican exports and 5% of the country's GDP.
A proportional representation of Costa Rica's exports, 2019
Countries (in blue) which have signed Free Trade Agreements with Costa Rica
A coffee plantation in the Orosí Valley
An industrial park in Heredia
Poás Volcano Crater is one of the country's main tourist attractions.
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The extent of Costa Rica's western EEZ in the Pacific
Symbolic act of Costa Rica's army abolition by president José Figueres Ferrer on December 1, 1948, at Cuartel Bellavista (former army headquarters), site which now hosts the National Museum
Costa Rica population pyramid in 2021
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Basílica de Nuestra Señora de los Ángeles (Basilica of Our Lady of the Angels), during 2007 pilgrimage
Las Carretas (oxcarts) are a national symbol.
Costa Rican breakfast with gallo pinto
Costa Rica supporters at the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil
The University of Costa Rica is the largest university of the country and one of the most recognizable across Central America
Development of life expectancy in Costa Rica
Hospital Calderón Guardia, named after the president who instituted universal health care across the country in 1941
Hospital CIMA in Escazú

Costa Rica (, ; ; literally "Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, the Caribbean Sea to the northeast, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, and maritime border with Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.

Panama City

The Old Quarter of Panama City in the 19th century
Casco Viejo seen from Cerro Ancón
The F&F tower, more commonly known as "El tornillo" or "La torre tornillo" meaning "the screw" or "the screw tower"
Construction boom in Panama City.
Panama City financial district
The Interoceanic Canal Museum
Plaza de la Independencia
Archway and classic calicanto wall in a traditional house
Compañía de Jesús, the ruins of an ancient convent of the Society of Jesus
Rommel Fernández Soccer Stadium
Rod Carew National Baseball Stadium
Roberto Durán Arena
Hospital Santo Tomás, the largest public hospital in the country
Hospital Nacional, a private hospital
Instituto Oncológico Nacional, at former Gorgas Hospital
The Gorgas Memorial Institute for Health Studies
The puente marino ("marine bridge"), Corredor Sur ("South Corridor")
Metrobus, the public bus system
Taxi in Panama City
Panama Metro, the metropolitan subway system
Architecture in Casco Viejo (Old Quarter)
The belltower of the San Francisco de Asis Church.
The Bahá'í House of Worship
Plaza Bolivar in Casco Viejo
Ruins of the Old Panama Cathedral
Santa Ana Park
Causeway connecting Naos, Perico, and Flamenco Islands to the mainland
The Bridge of the Americas, at the Pacific entrance to the Panama Canal
The Palace of the Herons, the official residence and office of the President of Panama
Plaza de Francia, a square in honor of the workers and French engineers who participated in the construction of the Panama Canal.
Obario neighborhood seen from San Francisco neighborhood
Skyline seen from Casco Viejo
The former Balboa Avenue
Panama skycrapers
Panama Bay
View of part of the metropolitan area of Panama
Panama City at night
Panama City at night
Iglesia Nuestra Sra. del Carmen
Interior view in Iglesia de la Merced
Plaza de Bolivar
Iglesia de la Merced
Street view
Street in old city

Panama City (Ciudad de Panamá; ), also simply known as Panama (or Panamá in Spanish), is the capital and largest city of Panama.

Location of the Viceroyalty of Peru: Initial territory 1542–1718 (light green) and final de jure territory 1776–1824 (dark green)

Viceroyalty of Peru

Spanish imperial provincial administrative district, created in 1542, that originally contained modern-day Peru and most of the Spanish Empire in South America, governed from the capital of Lima.

Spanish imperial provincial administrative district, created in 1542, that originally contained modern-day Peru and most of the Spanish Empire in South America, governed from the capital of Lima.

Location of the Viceroyalty of Peru: Initial territory 1542–1718 (light green) and final de jure territory 1776–1824 (dark green)
The Marquess of Salinas del Río Pisuerga, 8th Viceroy of Peru
Location of the Viceroyalty of Peru: Initial territory 1542–1718 (light green) and final de jure territory 1776–1824 (dark green)
Location of the most important Jesuit Reductions, with present political divisions.
Colonized area in its maximum extension ca 1650 (dark green) and the Viceroyalty in 1816 (dark brown)
The Plaza Mayor and the Cathedral of Lima
In The Distrest Poet, William Hogarth's portrait of a Grub Street poet starving to death, there is on the wall behind him a placard entitled "A view of the Gold Mines of Peru", reflecting the common perception of Spanish Peru as being an economically welcoming place for immigrants.
The Battle of Ayacucho
Charles I, King of Spain and the Indies. The Viceroyalty of Peru was founded under his reign.
The audiencia subdivisions of the Viceroyalty of Peru c. 1650, as numbered in the article.
Silver coin: 8 reales Carlos IV, Viceroyalty of Peru - 1800
Potosí with Cerro Rico
The social classes in the Viceroyalty of Peru: Pink and fuchsia colors represented the lowest demographic class - the slaves were at the lowest level, above which were poor Spaniards, native people, mestizos, free dark-skinned people and the castas; yellow color were the middle social class - traders, noble natives, corregidors; and green color of the pyramid was the upper class - the oidors and Tribunal del Consulado's traders.
Pin (Tupu), 18th century., Brooklyn Museum, Peru's indigenous elite used visual traditions to negotiate power and privilege through self-representation. High-ranking Andean women wore untailored dresses called anacus throughout the colonial period, typically topped with a lliclla, a mantle or shawl worn across the shoulders, and secured with one or more tupus, metal pins with large, often elaborately worked, ornamental heads
Santa Rosa de Lima
1534 Portuguese America according to the Treaty of Tordesillas
1750 Portuguese America according to the Treaty of Madrid (1750)

These movements led to the formation of the modern-day country of Peru, as well as Chile, Colombia, Panama, Ecuador, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Argentina, the territories that at one point or another had constituted the Viceroyalty of Peru.

Veraguas Province

Veraguas is a province of Panama, located in the centre-west of the country.

Ecuador

Country in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean on the west.

Country in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean on the west.

Tumaco-La Tolita mythological figure in feathered costume. Between 100 BC and 100 AD. Found in Esmeraldas
Ruins of Ingapirca, this site served as an outpost and provisioning of the Incan troops, but mainly it was a place of worship and veneration to the sun, the supreme Inca God, thus constituting a Coricancha, dedicated to the Inca ritual.
Pre-Columbian shrunken head of the Shuars (Jivaroan peoples).
Major square of Quito. Painting of 18th century. Quito Painting Colonial School.
Venezuelan independence leader Antonio José de Sucre
The "Guayaquil Conference" was the meeting between the two main Spanish South American independence leaders. In it the form of government of the nascent countries was discussed, San Martín opted for a unified South America in the form of a monarchy, while Bolívar opted for the same but into a republic. 1843 painting.
Antique dug out canoes in the courtyard of the Old Military Hospital in the Historic Center of Quito
Map of the former Gran Colombia in 1824 (named in its time as Colombia), the Gran Colombia covered all the colored region.
Ecuador in 1832
South America (1879): All land claims by Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Bolivia in 1879
Map of Ecuadorian land claims after 1916
Ecuadorian troops during the Cenepa War
The Mirage F.1JA (FAE-806) was one aircraft involved in the claimed shooting down of two Peruvian Sukhoi Su-22 on 10 February 1995.
President Lenín Moreno, first lady Rocío González Navas and his predecessor Rafael Correa, 3 April 2017
Palacio de Carondelet, the executive branch of the Ecuadorian Government
Adult Galápagos sea lion resting on a park bench in Puerto Baquerizo Moreno.
Ecuadorian President Lenín Moreno with U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, 20 July 2019
Map of Ecuador
Ecuadorian Air Force (FAE)
Ecuadorian topography
A view of the Cotopaxi volcano, in Cotopaxi Province
Birds in the Yasuni National Park
Baños de Agua Santa is an important tourist site
Ecuador is one of the most megadiverse countries in the world, it also has the most biodiversity per square kilometer of any nation, and is one of the highest endemism worldwide. In the image, the spectacled bear of the Andes.
Amazon rainforest in Ecuador
A proportional representation of Ecuador exports, 2019
GDP per capita development of Ecuador
The United States dollar is the common currency circulation in Ecuador
World Trade Center headquarters in Guayaquil
EXA's first satellite, NEE-01 Pegasus
The historic center of Quito has one of the largest and best-preserved historic centers in the Americas. The city also houses a large number of museums.
The Trolebús bus rapid transit system that runs through Quito. It is the principal BRT in Ecuador.
Railways in Ecuador (interactive map)
Population pyramid in 2020
IESS Hospital in Latacunga
The oldest observatory in South America is the Quito Astronomical Observatory, founded in 1873 and located in Quito, Ecuador. The Quito Astronomical Observatory is managed by the National Polytechnic School.
Cañari children with the typical Andean indigenous clothes
Huaorani man with the typical Amazonian indigenous clothes
Juan Montalvo
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Following the battle, Ecuador joined Simón Bolívar's Republic of Gran Colombia, also including modern-day Colombia, Venezuela and Panama.