Panama

Embera girl dressed for a dance
Vasco Núñez de Balboa, a recognized and popular figure of Panamanian history
"New Caledonia", the ill-fated Scottish Darien scheme colony in the Bay of Caledonia, west of the Gulf of Darien
Santo Domingo Church
1903 political cartoon. The US government, working with separatists in Panama, engineered a Panamanian declaration of independence from Colombia, then sent US warships and marines to Panama.
US President Theodore Roosevelt sitting on a steam shovel at the Panama Canal, 1906
Construction work on the Gaillard Cut of the Panama Canal, 1907
Omar Torrijos (right) with farmers in the Panamanian countryside. The Torrijos government was well known for its policies of land redistribution.
US President Jimmy Carter shakes hands with General Omar Torrijos after signing the Panama Canal Treaties (September 7, 1977).
The aftermath of urban warfare during the US invasion of Panama, 1989
British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson swapped football shirts with the President of Panama, Juan Carlos Varela in London, May 14, 2018.
A map of Panama
La Palma, Darién
The Chagres River
Colón Harbor, 2000
Panama map of Köppen climate classification
A cooler climate is common in the Panamanian highlands.
The National Assembly of Panama
Panama's President-elect Juan Carlos Varela and Vice President Isabel Saint Malo with US Secretary of State John Kerry just before Varela's inauguration in 2014
GDP per capita development Panama since 1950
A proportional representation of Panama exports, 2019
A Panamax ship in transit through the Miraflores locks, Panama Canal
Countries with politicians, public officials or close associates implicated in the Panama Papers leak on April 15, 2016
Tocumen International Airport, Central America's largest airport
Zapatilla Island, Panama
Fortifications on the Caribbean Side of Panama: Portobelo-San Lorenzo were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1980.
Population pyramid, 2016
Panama's population, 1961–2003
Panama City, Panama's capital
Plaza de la independencia, Panama City
Erika Ender
A couple dancing Panamanian Cumbia
Panamanian baseball catcher Carlos Ruiz during 2007 Spring Training

Transcontinental country in Central America and South America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north, and the Pacific Ocean to the south.

- Panama

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Colombia

Country in South America with an insular region in North America.

Country in South America with an insular region in North America.

Location map of the pre-Columbian cultures of Colombia
An illustration of the Battle of Cartagena de Indias, a major Spanish victory in the War of Jenkins' Ear
Many intellectual leaders of the independence process participated in the Royal Botanical Expedition to New Granada.
The Battle of Boyacá was the decisive battle that ensured success of the liberation campaign of New Granada.
The Socorro Province was the site of the genesis of the independence process.
Formation of the present Colombia since the Viceroyalty of New Granada's independence from the Spanish Empire
The Bogotazo in 1948
The Axis of Peace and Memory, a memorial to the victims of the Colombian conflict (1964–present)
Former President Juan Manuel Santos signed a peace accord
Relief map
Colombia map of Köppen climate classification
Mountain climate is one of the unique features of the Andes and other high altitude reliefs
The national flower of Colombia, the endemic orchid Cattleya trianae, is named for Colombian botanist and physician José Jerónimo Triana.
Casa de Nariño is the official home and principal workplace of the President of Colombia.
Capitolio Nacional seat of the Congress.
The VII Summit of the Pacific Alliance: Former President of Colombia, Juan Manuel Santos is second from the left.
Arpía III of the Colombian Air Force
Colombia GDP by sector in 2017.
Historical GDP per capita development
The Colombian Stock Exchange is part of the Latin American Integrated Market (MILA).
Colciencias is a Colombian Government agency that supports fundamental and applied research.
Port of Cartagena.
Population density of Colombia in 2007
The Las Lajas Sanctuary in the southern Colombian Department of Nariño
The Nobel literature prize winner Gabriel García Márquez
Vargas Swamp Lancers, artwork by Rodrigo Arenas Betancourt
Historic Centre of Santa Cruz de Mompox, an architectural site with colonial elements
Villa de Leyva main plaza
Regions of Colombia by its traditional music.
Colombian tiple
Teatro Colón of Bogotá houses the Ibero-American Theater Festival of Bogotá, one of the biggest theater festivals in the world.
The Cartagena Film Festival is the oldest cinema event in Latin America. The central focus is on films from Ibero-America.
Sancocho de gallina criolla is a traditional soup in Colombia.
Mariana Pajón is a Colombian cyclist, two-time Olympic gold medalist and BMX World Champion.
Colombia leads the annual América Economía ranking of the best clinics and hospitals in Latin America.
M5 building – National University of Colombia, designed by Pedro Nel Gómez
Mario Laserna Building – University of Los Andes

It is bordered by the Caribbean Sea to the north, Venezuela to the east, Brazil to the southeast, Ecuador and Peru to the south, the Pacific Ocean to the west and Panama to the northwest.

Panama Canal

Location of Panama between Pacific (bottom) and Caribbean (top), with canal at top center
The panamax ship MSC Poh Lin exiting the Miraflores locks, March 2013
Satellite image showing the location of Panama Canal: Dense jungles are visible in green.
Ferdinand de Lesseps, the French originator of the Suez Canal and the Panama Canal
Excavator at work in Bas Obispo, 1886
Share of the Compagnie Universelle du Canal Interocéanique de Panama, issued 29. November 1880 - signed by Ferdinand de Lesseps
The US's intentions to influence the area (especially the Panama Canal construction and control) led to the separation of Panama from Colombia in 1903.
The Culebra Cut in 1896
The Culebra Cut in 1902
Chief engineer John Frank Stevens
Sanitation officer William C. Gorgas
President Theodore Roosevelt sitting on a Bucyrus steam shovel at Culebra Cut, 1906
Construction work on the Gaillard Cut is shown in this photograph from 1907.
General George Washington Goethals, who completed the canal.
The USS Missouri, an, passes through the canal in 1945. The 108' 2" (32.96 m) beams of the Iowas and preceding were the largest ever to transit the Canal.
Pacific Side entrance
Gatun Lake provides the water used to raise and lower vessels in the Canal, gravity fed into each set of locks
Miter lock gate at Gatún
Roll-on/roll-off
ships, such as this one pictured here at Miraflores locks, are among the largest ships to pass through the canal.
Maximum ship sizes for the Panama and Suez canals
Gatun locks showing the "mule" locomotives at work
New Agua Clara locks (Atlantic side) in operation
Neopanamax ship passing through the Agua Clara locks.
A Marion steam shovel excavating the Panama Canal in 1908
The Panama Canal locks under construction in 1910
The first ship to transit the canal, the SS Ancon, passes through on 15 August 1914
Spanish laborers working on the Panama Canal in early 1900s

The Panama Canal (Canal de Panamá) is an artificial 82 km waterway in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean and divides North and South America.

Costa Rica

A stone sphere created by the Diquis culture at the National Museum of Costa Rica. The sphere is the icon of the country's cultural identity.
The Ujarrás historical site in the Orosí Valley, Cartago province. The church was built between 1686 and 1693.
The 1849 national coat of arms was featured in the first postal stamp issued in 1862.
Costa Rica map of Köppen climate classification
Red-eyed tree frog (Agalychnis callidryas)
Real GPD per capita development in Costa Rica
An Intel microprocessor facility in Costa Rica that was, at one time, responsible for 20% of Costa Rican exports and 5% of the country's GDP.
A proportional representation of Costa Rica's exports, 2019
Countries (in blue) which have signed Free Trade Agreements with Costa Rica
A coffee plantation in the Orosí Valley
An industrial park in Heredia
Poás Volcano Crater is one of the country's main tourist attractions.
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The extent of Costa Rica's western EEZ in the Pacific
Symbolic act of Costa Rica's army abolition by president José Figueres Ferrer on December 1, 1948, at Cuartel Bellavista (former army headquarters), site which now hosts the National Museum
Costa Rica population pyramid in 2021
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Basílica de Nuestra Señora de los Ángeles (Basilica of Our Lady of the Angels), during 2007 pilgrimage
Las Carretas (oxcarts) are a national symbol.
Costa Rican breakfast with gallo pinto
Costa Rica supporters at the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil
The University of Costa Rica is the largest university of the country and one of the most recognizable across Central America
Development of life expectancy in Costa Rica
Hospital Calderón Guardia, named after the president who instituted universal health care across the country in 1941
Hospital CIMA in Escazú

Costa Rica (, ; ; literally "Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, the Caribbean Sea to the northeast, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, and maritime border with Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.

Ecuador

Country in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean on the west.

Country in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean on the west.

Tumaco-La Tolita mythological figure in feathered costume. Between 100 BC and 100 AD. Found in Esmeraldas
Ruins of Ingapirca, this site served as an outpost and provisioning of the Incan troops, but mainly it was a place of worship and veneration to the sun, the supreme Inca God, thus constituting a Coricancha, dedicated to the Inca ritual.
Pre-Columbian shrunken head of the Shuars (Jivaroan peoples).
Major square of Quito. Painting of 18th century. Quito Painting Colonial School.
Venezuelan independence leader Antonio José de Sucre
The "Guayaquil Conference" was the meeting between the two main Spanish South American independence leaders. In it the form of government of the nascent countries was discussed, San Martín opted for a unified South America in the form of a monarchy, while Bolívar opted for the same but into a republic. 1843 painting.
Antique dug out canoes in the courtyard of the Old Military Hospital in the Historic Center of Quito
Map of the former Gran Colombia in 1824 (named in its time as Colombia), the Gran Colombia covered all the colored region.
Ecuador in 1832
South America (1879): All land claims by Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Bolivia in 1879
Map of Ecuadorian land claims after 1916
Ecuadorian troops during the Cenepa War
The Mirage F.1JA (FAE-806) was one aircraft involved in the claimed shooting down of two Peruvian Sukhoi Su-22 on 10 February 1995.
President Lenín Moreno, first lady Rocío González Navas and his predecessor Rafael Correa, 3 April 2017
Palacio de Carondelet, the executive branch of the Ecuadorian Government
Adult Galápagos sea lion resting on a park bench in Puerto Baquerizo Moreno.
Ecuadorian President Lenín Moreno with U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, 20 July 2019
Map of Ecuador
Ecuadorian Air Force (FAE)
Ecuadorian topography
A view of the Cotopaxi volcano, in Cotopaxi Province
Birds in the Yasuni National Park
Baños de Agua Santa is an important tourist site
Ecuador is one of the most megadiverse countries in the world, it also has the most biodiversity per square kilometer of any nation, and is one of the highest endemism worldwide. In the image, the spectacled bear of the Andes.
Amazon rainforest in Ecuador
A proportional representation of Ecuador exports, 2019
GDP per capita development of Ecuador
The United States dollar is the common currency circulation in Ecuador
World Trade Center headquarters in Guayaquil
EXA's first satellite, NEE-01 Pegasus
The historic center of Quito has one of the largest and best-preserved historic centers in the Americas. The city also houses a large number of museums.
The Trolebús bus rapid transit system that runs through Quito. It is the principal BRT in Ecuador.
Railways in Ecuador (interactive map)
Population pyramid in 2020
IESS Hospital in Latacunga
The oldest observatory in South America is the Quito Astronomical Observatory, founded in 1873 and located in Quito, Ecuador. The Quito Astronomical Observatory is managed by the National Polytechnic School.
Cañari children with the typical Andean indigenous clothes
Huaorani man with the typical Amazonian indigenous clothes
Juan Montalvo
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Following the battle, Ecuador joined Simón Bolívar's Republic of Gran Colombia, also including modern-day Colombia, Venezuela and Panama.

Panama City

The Old Quarter of Panama City in the 19th century
Casco Viejo seen from Cerro Ancón
The F&F tower, more commonly known as "El tornillo" or "La torre tornillo" meaning "the screw" or "the screw tower"
Construction boom in Panama City.
Panama City financial district
The Interoceanic Canal Museum
Plaza de la Independencia
Archway and classic calicanto wall in a traditional house
Compañía de Jesús, the ruins of an ancient convent of the Society of Jesus
Rommel Fernández Soccer Stadium
Rod Carew National Baseball Stadium
Roberto Durán Arena
Hospital Santo Tomás, the largest public hospital in the country
Hospital Nacional, a private hospital
Instituto Oncológico Nacional, at former Gorgas Hospital
The Gorgas Memorial Institute for Health Studies
The puente marino ("marine bridge"), Corredor Sur ("South Corridor")
Metrobus, the public bus system
Taxi in Panama City
Panama Metro, the metropolitan subway system
Architecture in Casco Viejo (Old Quarter)
The belltower of the San Francisco de Asis Church.
The Bahá'í House of Worship
Plaza Bolivar in Casco Viejo
Ruins of the Old Panama Cathedral
Santa Ana Park
Causeway connecting Naos, Perico, and Flamenco Islands to the mainland
The Bridge of the Americas, at the Pacific entrance to the Panama Canal
The Palace of the Herons, the official residence and office of the President of Panama
Plaza de Francia, a square in honor of the workers and French engineers who participated in the construction of the Panama Canal.
Obario neighborhood seen from San Francisco neighborhood
Skyline seen from Casco Viejo
The former Balboa Avenue
Panama skycrapers
Panama Bay
View of part of the metropolitan area of Panama
Panama City at night
Panama City at night
Iglesia Nuestra Sra. del Carmen
Interior view in Iglesia de la Merced
Plaza de Bolivar
Iglesia de la Merced
Street view
Street in old city

Panama City (Ciudad de Panamá; ), also simply known as Panama (or Panamá in Spanish), is the capital and largest city of Panama.

Gran Colombia

State that encompassed much of northern South America and part of southern Central America from 1819 to 1831.

State that encompassed much of northern South America and part of southern Central America from 1819 to 1831.

Gran Colombia; Claimed Land is shown in Light Green
A mural by Santiago Martinez Delgado at the Colombian Congress representing the Congress of Cúcuta
Gran Colombia; Claimed Land is shown in Light Green
The departments of Gran Colombia in 1820
A map of Gran Colombia showing the 12 departments created in 1824 and territories disputed with neighboring countries
Colombia
Ecuador
Venezuela

It included present-day Colombia, mainland Ecuador (i.e. excluding the Galapagos Islands), Panama, and Venezuela, along with parts of northern Peru and northwestern Brazil.

Torrijos in 1978

Omar Torrijos

Torrijos in 1978
Omar Torrijos (right) with farmers in the Panamanian countryside. The Torrijos government was well known for its policies of land redistribution.
President Carter shakes hands with General Torrijos of Panama after signing the Panama Canal Treaty.
Omar Torrijos Mausoleum in Amador, Panama City, in the former Canal Zone.

Omar Efraín Torrijos Herrera (February 13, 1929 – July 31, 1981) was the Commander of the Panamanian National Guard and military leader of Panama from 1968 to his death in 1981.

Vasco Núñez de Balboa

Vasco Núñez de Balboa

Spanish explorer, governor, and conquistador.

Spanish explorer, governor, and conquistador.

Vasco Núñez de Balboa
Tierra Firme 1513 – Castilla de Oro
Balboa setting his dogs upon native practitioners of homosexuality (1594); engraving from the New York Public Library. The rendering was by the Flemish Protestant artist Theodor de Bry.
Balboa's travel route to the South Sea, 1513
Balboa claiming possession of the South Sea ( 19th century engraving by unknown artist )
Statue of Balboa in Madrid (, 1954)
Image of the execution of Balboa in Vasco Nuñez de Balboa by Frederick A. Ober
Monument of Vasco Núñez de Balboa in Panama City
Balboa 1-cent, 1913 issue

In 1501, he crossed the Caribbean coasts from the east of Panama, along the Colombian coast, through the Gulf of Urabá toward Cabo de la Vela.

Pacific Ocean

Largest and deepest of Earth's five oceanic divisions.

Largest and deepest of Earth's five oceanic divisions.

Partial picture of the Pacific Ocean from space, by the Apollo 11 crew
Model of a Fijian drua, an example of an Austronesian vessel with a double-canoe (catamaran) hull and a crab claw sail
Map showing the migration of the Austronesian peoples, the first seaborne human migration in history (c.3000-1500 BCE)
Map showing a large number of Spanish expeditions across the Pacific Ocean from the 16th to 18th centuries including the Manila galleon route between Acapulco and Manila, the first transpacific trade route in history.
Universalis Cosmographia, the Waldseemüller map dated 1507, from a time when the nature of the Americas was ambiguous, particularly North America, as a possible part of Asia, was the first map to show the Americas separating two distinct oceans. South America was generally considered a "new world" and shows the name "America" for the first time, after Amerigo Vespucci
The bathyscaphe Trieste, before her record dive to the bottom of the Mariana Trench, 23 January 1960
Abel Aubert du Petit-Thouars taking over Tahiti on 9 September 1842
Sunset over the Pacific Ocean as seen from the International Space Station. tops of thunderclouds are also visible.
The island geography of the Pacific Ocean Basin
Regions, island nations and territories of Oceania
Tarawa Atoll in the Republic of Kiribati
Sunset in Monterey County, California, U.S.
Impact of El Niño and La Niña on North America
Typhoon Tip at global peak intensity on 12 October 1979
Ring of Fire. The Pacific is ringed by many volcanoes and oceanic trenches.
Ulawun stratovolcano situated on the island of New Britain, Papua New Guinea
Mount Saint Helens in 2020
Pacific Ocean currents have created 3 "islands" of debris.
Marine debris on a Hawaiian coast
Prime Minister Suga declined to drink the bottle of Fukushima's treated radioactive water that he was holding, which would otherwise be discharged to the Pacific. 2020.
Made in 1529, the Diogo Ribeiro map was the first to show the Pacific at about its proper size
Map of the Pacific Ocean during European Exploration, circa 1754.
Maris Pacifici by Ortelius (1589). One of the first printed maps to show the Pacific Ocean<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.loc.gov/item/prn-01-093/|title=Library Acquires Copy of 1507 Waldseemüller World Map – News Releases (Library of Congress)|publisher=Loc.gov|access-date=April 20, 2013}}</ref>
Map of the Pacific Ocean during European Exploration, circa 1702–1707
Ladrilleros Beach in Colombia on the coast of Chocó natural region
Tahuna maru islet, French Polynesia
Los Molinos on the coast of Southern Chile

Panama

Panama Canal Zone

Unincorporated territory of the United States, located in Isthmus of Panama in Central America, that existed from 1903 to 1979.

Unincorporated territory of the United States, located in Isthmus of Panama in Central America, that existed from 1903 to 1979.

Map of the area before canal construction
Charts of excavation progress and contribution to the canal excavation
Map of the Panama Canal Zone
Canal Zone Courthouse, site of the Canal Zone District Court which existed from 1914 until 1982.
Gorgas Hospital was built by the French as L'Hospital Notre Dame de Canal in 1882, renamed Ancon Hospital when the U.S. assumed control in 1904, rebuilt in 1915 and finally renamed in honor of William C. Gorgas in 1928. It is now home to Panama's Ministry of Health and the Instituto Oncologico Nacional.
Howard Air Force Base in 1970
Abandoned theatre in Fort Davis (2011)
Two Canal Zone stamps showing precancels.

It was located within the territory of Panama, consisting of the Panama Canal and an area generally extending 5 mi on each side of the centerline, but excluding Panama City and Colón.